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Background : Osteoporosis and atrophic cell pattern in Pap smear are frequent findings In postmenopausal women due to loss of ovarian function, The present study attempted to find out possible correlation between morphologic characteristics of Pap smear and osteoporosis. Material & methods: The subjects were 825 women(age from 35 to 80) who had undergone Pap smear and bone mineral density(BMD) at The Korea Association of Health Promotion, Seoul Branch, from March 8 to May 10, 2005. Pap smears from 825 women were reviewed and classified either mature cell pattern or atrophic cell pattern by their cytologic patterns, BMD were measured using LUNAR DPX MdIQ(Minster, Ohio, USA). BMD value of lumbar spine(Ll, L2,L3 and L4) were measured from 825 women and BMD value of proximal region off emur(neck NK, Wards triangle WT, and trochanter TR) were measured from 818 women and their bone status were classified as normal( T-sore:>-1.0), osteopenia (T-score: -l~<-2,5) and osteoporosis(T-score: ≤ -2.5). And age distribution of Pap smear, average T-value andfrequency ofsteoporo-sis of each region of the bone, percentage of osteoporosis of each boneregion by age group and changing pattern of percentage of osteopenia and osteoporosis in certain postmenopausal period were compared between mature and atrophic cell pattern. Results: Pap smears revealed total mature cell pattern 53,9%(445/825) and total atrophic cell pattern 46.1%(380/825), Percentage of mature cell pattern decreased from 98.2%(168/171)under 44 age group to 13,3%(17/128) over 65 age group and mature cell pattern increased from 1.8%(3/171) under 44 age group to 86.7%(111/128) oyer 65 age group. Mean T-value of each region of lumbar spine and femur of mature cell pattern were lower than that of atrophic cell pattern about -1,5. And osteoporosis has noted in atrophic cell pattern showing odds ratio Ll 13.9, L2 15.3, L3 12.0, L4 10,4, UK 6.7, WT 10.9 and TR 4.1.Atrophic cell pattern started to increase after 45 years of age and osteoporosis of a trophic cell pattern started after 55 years of age. During 50 to 64 years of age period, L3, L4 and WT revealed parallel increased of osteopenia and osteoporosis and Ll, L2 revealed decreased of osteopenia and increased of osteoporosis. nia Conclusion: Above findings suggest that atrophic cell pattern of Pap smear precedes osteoporosis about 10 years and one of predictor of osteoporosis.
Efforts to establish a Korean-style design culture is not only meaningful in terms of creating a new product value in the world design market but also in terms of reaffirming our national identity. Much like a national language, art is a viable medium of expression, and as such, it can communicate the sentiments and sensibilities of the nation to which it belongs. However, in order to formulate designs that are unique Korean, we must first install a new understanding of the plastic aesthetics inherent in our traditional cultural products. This is not the kind of enterprise we can ascribe to the notion of naturalism generally expounded by art historians. Rather it entails the establishment of a more precise concept of plastic art, which better addresses our own uniqueness. This is the reason that the aesthetic value of a craft society, entailed in the creation of a product, cannot readily assert itself as the aesthetic value of an industrial society. Furthermore, designers must be given greater first-hand exposure to traditional cultural products, so that they may accept the intrinsic plastic aesthetics as texts for their own creative endeavors to produce design products that are uniquely Korean. This is because conceptual language can only go so far in describing in sufficient detail the fundamental properties of a given shape. However, the potentials hitherto discussed is confined to short term prospects, for in the long run design products of countries around the world will eventually be marked by their similarities rather than by its differences. The concept of originality will inevitably involve individuality rather than cultural deviations, and it will become possible through group distinctions rather than through national distinctions.
오늘날 다수의 빔과 주파수를 사용하는 통신위성은 고속디지털 신호 처리를 응용한 부채널 단위의 OBS(On-board Switching) 기술과 원하지 않는 간섭신호를 일정부분 제거하는 기능을 필요로 하게 될 전망이다. 본고에서는 위성통신 분야에서 현재 활발히 연구가 진행되고 있는 부채널 수준의 스위칭이 가능한 수동형 디지털 통신위성에 대하여 소개 한다. 아울러 위성 선진국의 디지털 통신위성 개발 현황, 부채널 증폭 및 스위칭을 위한 소요기술, 그리고 간섭신호 제거가 가능한 디지털 통신위성 기술에 대하여 기술한다.