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This article aims to analyze the symbolism of Mexico City in the novel Las batallas en el desierto, by José Emilio Pacheco (1999), and the essay “68,” by Paco Ignacio Taibo II (1991). Though the first is situated during the 1940s and the second in the 1960s, each portrays Mexico City as a place of developmentalism and authoritarianism, following the concept “sites of memory” of Pierre Nora. If in Las batallas, the public monuments, statues and other symbolistic places are commemorated, in “68,” they are demolished and devastated during the student movement of 1968. In contrast to the 1940s, the 1960s in Taibo II’s essay is represented the time when collective memory functions to preserve people’s truths in their fight against the mass media—especially radio, which has served to greatly form and control the city’s identity. The city, along with time, transforms itself from a place for celebration to one of eternal mourning. Eventually, the two literary texts help readers question their present and the maturity of the nation through the reconstruction of the narrators’ memories against amnesia. Additionally, I will explore how Carlos Monsiváis’ essays on Mexican society during that time and the medias’ role offer a critical perspective for better understanding the literary works of Pacheco and Taibo II. La Ciudad de México es un espacio simbólico en las obras, Las batallas en el desierto (1981) de José Emilio Pacheco y en 68 (1991) de Paco Ignacio Taibo II, corpus del análisis en este artículo. Ambas obras, a pesar del tiempo distinto de escritura -la primera en los años cuarenta y la segunda los sesenta-, muestran la capital del país como un lugar donde está proyectado el ideal desarrollista y, simultáneamente, el autoritarismo de la nación, siguiendo el concepto acuñado por Pierre Nora de “los lugares de la memoria”. Los monumentos públicos y los lugares simbólicos del proyecto utopista tan celebrados en Las batallas se ven demolidos en el ensayo sobre el movimiento de 1968. Frente a los medios de comunicación, la radio principalmente, que forman y controlan la identidad urbana, la memoria colectiva toma el papel de rescatar la verdad del pueblo. El presente estudio analiza ambas obras para demostrar que la ciudad como sala de fiestas en el texto de Pacheco se transforma en lugar de añoramiento y luto eterno en el de Taibo II. Con la reconstrucción de las memorias de los narradores, las dos obras cuestionan en el presente de los lectores la solidez del concepto ciudad-nación frente al olvido institucional obligado. Los ensayos del cronista Carlos Monsiváis, que diagnostican y critican la sociedad mexicana de los tiempos en cuestión y la función de los medios de comunicación, ofrecen una perspectiva que coadyuvan a nuestra lectura de las obras de Pacheco y Taibo II.
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This paper studied the differences between ‘jiu’ and ‘cai’ in the negative sentences from the view point of pragmatics. The adverbs ‘jiu’ and ‘cai’ are very often used by Chinese speakers, and in negative sentences, these two adverbs represent emphasis. ‘Jiu’ tends to be used with ‘le’ and ‘cai’ with ‘ne’. Both adverbs show the speaker’s emphasis but the pragmatic functional differences in negative sentences. This paper analyzed several corpus data and compared the difference in pragmatics between ‘jiu’ and ‘cai’. Through the analysis, this paper confirmed their ability to contradict each other even though they show the speaker’s subjectivity. 'Jiu' indicates that either the start or end time of an event is earlier than the speaker expected. For this reason, ‘jiu’ has the function of ‘news reporting’ with ‘le’. This can also be applied to the ‘emphasis’ usage. ‘Jiu’ unilaterally conveys the speaker’s thoughts to the listener. On the other hand, ‘cai’ is not worthy for ‘news reporting’ because either the start or end time of an event has passed earlier than the speaker expected. In general, ‘cai’ combines with ‘ne’ to gain sympathy from the listener. As such, when a Chinese speaker wants to convey his position, he tends to choose either ‘jiu’ or ‘cai’ according to his purpose of utterance. 본고는 부정문에 출현해서 소위 ‘강조’의 의미를 갖는 어기부사 ‘就’와 ‘才’의 화용 기능 차이를 분석했다. 화자가 ‘就’를 사용하는 것은 청자에게 자신의 입장을 일방적으로 통보하고, 청자의 개입을 차단하기 위해서이다. 반대로 ‘才’는 담화를 시작하며 청자의 동의와 공감을 기대하는 확신 표지 ‘呢’와 결합해 화자의 발화에 대해 청자가 동의하고 공감해 주기를 바란다. 즉, 부정문에서 사용된 ‘就’는 화자의 입장만을 일방적으로 전달하는 폐쇄적인 표지라면 ‘才’는 청자의 개입을 허용하는 열린 표지라고 할 수 있겠다.
This paper contrasts ‘shi+X’ with ‘shi+X+de’. So far, many studies have seen ‘shi’ as the highlight maker. For this reason, they argued that ‘shi’ represents the same meaning both when there is and when there is no. However, this paper sees ‘shi’ as a limited-range maker. The speaker often changes the order of the words for a limited-range maker. The ‘shi’ also has a confirmation function. For this reason, ‘shi+X’ and ‘shi+X+de’ cannot be used at the beginning of a conversation between the speaker and the listener. There are functional differences between ‘shi+X’ and ‘shi+X+de’. ‘shi+X+de’ has subjectivity and ‘shi+X’ has objectivity when presenting the same meaning. Because ‘de’ functions as a pay attention. That is why a speaker can be polite when speaking using ‘shi+X+de’.
The purposes of this study were to examine tourist destination image and the influence on satisfaction and behavior intention of GKS scholars. The results are as follows. First, tourist destination image factors of cognitive and affective image had a significant effect on tourist satisfaction as well as behavior intention. Second, the satisfaction of tourist had a positive effect on behavior intention. Third, the tourist satisfaction had a complete and partial mediating effect on the relationship between tourist destination image and behavior intention. This study findings have the implication for an internal tourism market considering international students to develop an activity-based tourism promoting a positive image of tourist destination image in Korea. Futhermore, Korean government organizations related to inviting international students and tourism policy should prepare a strategy for growth in the field of internal tourism market.
최근, 프리캐스트를 통한 모듈화에 대한 관심으로 인해 교량 및 빌딩 뿐만 아니라, 원전구조물, LNG 가스탱크, 중소형 강합성 구조물 등 특수구조물에도 프리캐스트 모듈화에 대한 연구가 활발하게 이뤄지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 프리캐스트 제작의 시공 및 작업성, 원활한 자재의 조달할 수 있는 방법으로 페로시멘트 (ferrocement)를 바탕으로 한 스틸메쉬로 보강된 모르타르 프리캐스트 패널을 제작하였다. 모르타르는 고강도 및 고유동성을 지니도록 실리카퓸과 고로슬래그의 배합율에 대한 변수연구를 통해 최적의 배합을 선정하였으며, 1,200×600×150mm의 패널을 제작하여 스틸메쉬로 보강한 모르타르 시편과 일반 철근콘크리트 시편을 보강비 2%와 4%로 각각 제작하였다. 제작된 스틸메쉬로 보강한 모르타르의 프리캐스트 모듈화의 적용 가능성을 판단하기 위하여 기본적인 재료물성실험과 자유건조수축실험을 수행하였으며, 선하중으로 하중을 재하하여 3점 휨 시험으로 스틸메쉬로 보강한 모르타르의 구조성능을 검토하였다. 실험결과를 통해, 스틸메쉬로 보강된 모르타르 프리캐스트 패널은 높은 휨성능 및 연성효과가 있으나, 4%로 보강된 스틸메쉬 모르타르 프리캐스트 패널은 전단보강에 대한 고려가 필요하다고 판단되며, 이에 대한 조치가 이루어진다면 프리캐스트 모듈화 부재로 적용이 가능하다고 판단된다. Recently, researches related to precast modular construction have been actively conducted for nuclear power plant, LNG gas tank, and small-medium PCCV as well as bridges and buildings. In this study, the precast panel cast with steel mesh reinforced mortar (SRM) which is similar reinforced ferrocement was developed for efficient precast construction, construction time reduction, and easy transportation. Mortar mixture with high strength and flowability was obtained from various case studies using silica fume and GGBS. Also, 1,200×600×150mm SRM and reinforced concrete (RC) panels were manufactured with reinforcing ratio of 2% and 4%. To verify structural performance of the SRM specimen, the basic material tests, free shrinkage test, and 3-point flexural test with a line loading were carried out. From the test results, it was determined that SRM specimens showed outstanding flexural capacity and ductility. However, the 4% reinforced SRM specimens must consider shear reinforcing to be used as a precast modular member.
The purpose of this study is to suggest the dance technique class teaching method that applied the principle of improvisation which emphasizes feeling, knowing, and executing movement from a subjective point of view. This is to connect the opposite points of improvisation and technique class, so that technique class does not stop at imitation of movement, but increases the ability to interpret one’s singularity. This study proposed the use of feelings, imagery, and conversation in order to utilize the subjectivity instead of the method of blindly repetitive training in the hierarchical relationship between the instructor and the learner. First, the use of feeling is the most essential, emphasizing the feeling one’s body in learning process as the subject of movement. Second, the use of imagery can be divided into metaphorical imagery and external visual imagery. By using metaphorical imagery, it becomes possible to understand and interpret the movement based on feeling instead of copying the form. And by external visual imagery, it is possible to expand and transform the given movements through the clear understand of the change of relation between different body parts and space created by motion. Third, the use of conversation is a means to identify one’s feelings and find a solution as a subject of movements.
Recently, it has been focused on blended learning, flip learning, and discussion class in educational circles. This means the learner-centered education, not centered on lectures. Discussion class has many advantages such as improving on communication ability, critical thinking ability, and critical listening ability. I applied the discussion class as the Chinese teaching method and introduced the case. The way of teaching is as follows. Text selection - Preparation - Group discussion - Full discussion - Review - Test. The students translated the text through a group discussion and then modified the text through a full discussion. In this process, students gave their opinions and actively participated in the class. Compared with classroom-based lessons in the past, students participation is much higher.
Nationwide energy consumption data of building stock is more useful when it is provided with building information, such as vintage, gross area, region, and usage for open-ended users. The combined data could help building designers and policy makers more deeply understand which variables have a heavy impact on the energy use. 36 prototypical residential buildings were defined with HESS micro data. Then, detailed building energy modeling was performed to derive EUR (End-Use Ratio) of the each prototypical residential building. Those results are derived thanks to HESS micro data which provides both building information and monthly energy consumption data from 2,520 household samples. As a demonstration of the EUR data application, the Building Energy Efficiency Rating of the prototypical residential buildings was performed since EUR information is mandatory for the rating system. As a result, all the prototypical residential buildings got rates from 2 to 1++ grade. This can be interpreted that 50% of existing residential buildings could get grade from grade 2 to grade 1++. This means that current rating criteria should be strengthened so that more energy-efficient buildings can receive high ratings.