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A linear state equation of the first order differential form relating the load frequency dynamic characteristics of interconnected power systems with energy source was derived. The integral of the squared errors was minimized using Pontryagin's maximum principle. A computer code for solution of the Matrix Riccati equation was developed using direct integration method. The dynamic reponses of the load frequency and tie line power flow were analyzed numerically by the subroutine MARK and PLOT. The dynamic reponse which is dependent on the load frequency and tie line power flow was optimized by the various weighting factors γ and β which affect the energy source dynamics. These results can be applied to increase the stability and reliability of the interconnected power system by optimizing the control of load frequency considering energy source dynamics.
In this paper, an adaptive law for an adaptive observer for linear time-invariant multi input-output systems is developed. This is done by expressing the system in a Luders and Narendra's canonical form, and by using the popov's hyperstability criterion in the design of an adaptive observer. A numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the adaptive law and its implementation.
This paper presents the design method of the Adaptive Controller for the steady state and load follow control of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), when the values of the parameters are unknown or varied. As a reference model, the Gain Scheduled Optimal Load Follow Controller is used, which is modeled after the linearized model at the level of the 50% power output. The Linear Model Following Controller is designed as the first level controller, and Signal Synthesis Parallel Structure Adaptive Model Following Controller based on the hyperstability theory is designed as the second level controller. An examination of the adaptability of the designed AMFC system reveals that, for the 10% variation of the parameters, all the state outputs are stabilized into a load follow state after about 90 seconds and the proportional integral adaptation mechanism makes the algorithm easier.
In this paper, the characteristics of a double modular redundant system(DMRS) which has a basic structure of the micro electronic railway signalling system was investigated. The reliability and safety between the Fail-Passive and the Fail-Safe system was compared using Markov model. Computer simulation shows that the Fail-Passive system has more reliability but less safety than the Fail-Safe system.