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Retail firms have begun to pursue the marketing strategies, which stimulate consumers’ sensibility and lead people to purchase their products. The visible effects of visual merchandising (VM) arouse consumers’ interest and play an effective role in having busy people efficiently choose products. Apparel retail stores such as SPA use the offline store to be the experiential environment of their branding. Consumers’ sensitivity and response toward various visual merchandising strategies needs to be accessed. The purpose of this study is to identify VM consciousness and VM evaluation attribute factors. Relationship of such variables with other variables were accessed. As consequence variables, product satisfaction and unplanned purchase behavior were included in the study. An empirical survey data was collected from men and women of various ages. Results indicated that VM consciousness and VM evaluation attribute factors were not correlated with consumer demographic variables. VM evaluation attributes were factored into appropriateness, attractiveness and functionality dimensions. Clothing involvement and brand orientation significantly influenced product satisfaction and unplanned purchase. The direct and indirect effect (via VM consciousness) were significant. For unplanned purchase, brand orientation only had indirect effect. The influence of VM evaluation attribute factors were significant. Appropriateness had stronger effect on product satisfaction whereas attractiveness had stronger effect on unplanned behavior. Functionality dimension had only indirect effect on product satisfaction but did not show significant direct and indirect effects on unplanned purchase. This study identified the pivotal role of VM consciousness in various shopping and purchasing circumstances in offline retail store of apparel brands.
Researchers of product involvement claimed that their measures were 'global', meaning that scales could be applied to any product category. One of the most popular measures of product involvement is Zaichkowsky's Personal Product Inventory (PⅡ) that was published in 1985. This measure has been very popular because of its easy of use and versatility to various research circumstances. However, these global measures may not successfully capture the unique characteristics of a product, especially when the product is highly complex and provides great variety in consumer choices. Application of PⅡ to apparel category should be carefully examined. This study seeks to investigate appropriate ways to apply PⅡ to apparel products. Specifically, a well known multi-dimensional conceptualization of product involvement by Kapferer and Laurent was examined in relation to PⅡ. By providing a way to apply the well known PⅡ scale, this study tries to significantly facilitate empirical work on apparel product involvement. College students who were attending four different universities participated in the study. Data from 447 questionnaires were statistically analyzed. In order to see differences in apparel product categories, two specific situations, namely low involvement and high involvement that are different in terms of arousing purchase or situational involvement, were included in the study. Regression analysis, Person correlation coefficients, t-test, factor analysis and other descriptive statistics were sued to analyze the data. Empirical results confirmed that PⅡ was a reliable one-dimensional measure. Comparison between PⅡ and Kapferer and Laruent's multidimensional scale indicated that PⅡ was likely to measure product interest and importance rather than risk probability or risk importance sub-dimensions of apparel involvement. In addition, application of PⅡ to two different specific apparel product categories suggested that measuring product involvement using PⅡ should be global, not at the specific product level.
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함안층 새발자국 화석지는 퇴적순서와 구조 및 암상에 따라 7개의 지층으로 구분되며, 새발자국은 최상부층에서 나 타난다. 이 화석층에는 연흔과 건열 등이 분포하며, 주로 적회색 미사암과 흑색 이암이 교호하는 암상을 보인다. 화석 층과 동일 암석을 수습하여 물리적 및 광물학적 특성 분석 결과, 흡수율 0.62%, 공극률 1.64%, 비중 2.63이며, 조암 광물로는 사장석, 석영, 방해석, 녹니석 및 운모가 동정되었다. 화석지의 암석학적 및 풍화특성을 바탕으로 보존처리 에 적합한 강화제 적정성 실험 결과, 시료의 무게변화가 가장 적은 것은 OH 100이었다. 강화실험에 따른 색차도 OH 100을 적용한 시료에서 가장 안정적임을 보였다. 팽윤저지제와 병행하여 강화제를 처리한 시료는 색차에 큰 변화가 있었다. 초음파 속도 변화 역시 OH 100에서 가장 높아져 암석의 물성이 강화된 것으로 나타났다. 팽윤저지제와 함께 OH 100을 적용한 경우에 공극율이 감소하여 물성강화에 영향을 미친 것으로 확인되었다. 그러나 함안층 새발자국 화 석지는 점토광물을 포함하는 세립질 퇴적암으로 점토광물의 층간간격 및 흡수율 감소를 통한 물성강화를 위해 실제 화석지에는 팽윤저지제(antihygro)와 OH 100 강화제를 병행해 처리하는 것이 가장 안정적일 것으로 판단된다. 이는 실내 함침실험 결과이므로 화석지에 직접 사용하기 위해서는 현장 적용실험 등의 검증이 필요하다. The bird track fossil site in Haman Formation is divided into seven sedimental layers by the sedimentary structures, lithofacies and sequences. The bird tracks top on the highest layer, which includes ripple marks and suncracks. The layer has lithofacies with reddish grey siltstone and dark grey mudstone, alternately. As an analysis for the same rocks of the fossil site, physical properties show on mean values for 0.62% of absorption rate, 1.64% of porosity and 2.63 of specific gravity. Rock-forming minerals composed mainly of plagioclase, quartz, calcite, chlorite and mica. Meanwhile, we executed an experiments based on the petrography and weatherings to find a proper consolidants. In the experiments, the OH 100 reagent proved stable aspect and the lowest transition rate in terms of weight and chromaticity. Also, it showed the highest increase in ultrasonic velocity, improving the physical properties of the rocks. In the case of applying the OH 100 with antihygro, an swelling inhibitors on the sedimentary rocks, the chromaticity indicated an stable transition aspect. When it comes to the physical properties, the antihygro also decreases the porosity effectively. Thus, the most proper method for the fossil site of Haman Formation is to apply antihygro and OH 100 reagents since the rocks includes clay minerals that show swelling characteristics. However, this result is deduced from an indoor application experiments, leaving the necessity of verification how these reagents would affect the bird tracks site under the field condition.
The Bird Track Site in the Haman Formation in Yongsanri (Natural Monument No. 222) was reported on the named Koreanaornis hamanensis and Jindongornipes kimi sauropod footprint Brontopodus and ichnospecies Ochlichnus formed by Nematoda . This site has outstanding academic value because it is where the secondhighest number of bird tracks have been reported in the world. However, only 25% of the site remains after being designated a natural monument in 1969. This is due to artificial damage caused by worldwide fame and quarrying for flat stone used in Korean floor heating systems. The Haman Formation, including this fossil site, has lithofacies showing reddish-grey siltstone and black shale, alternately. The boundary of the two rocks is progressive, and sedimentary structures like ripple marks and sun cracks can clearly be found. This site was divided into seven formations according to sedimentary sequences and structures. The results of a nondestructive deterioration evaluation showed that chemical and biological damage rates were very low for all formations. Also, physical damage displayed low rates with 0.49% on exfoliation, 0.04% on blistering, 0.28% on break-out; however, the joint crack index was high, 6.20. Additionally, efflorescence was observed on outcrops at the backside and the northwestern side. Physical properties measured by an indirect ultrasonic analysis were found to be moderately weathered (MW). Above all, the southeastern side was much fresher, though some areas around the column of protection facility appeared more weathered. Furthermore, five kinds of discontinuity surface can be found at this site, with the bedding plane showing the higher share. There is the possibility of toppling failure occurring at this site but stable on plane and wedge failure by means of stereographic projection. We concluded that the overall level of deterioration and stability were relatively fine. However, continuous monitoring and conservation treatment and management should be performed as situations such as the physicochemical weathering of the fossil layer, and the efflorescence of the mortar adjoining the protection facility’s column appear to be challenging to control. 함안 용산리 함안층 새발자국 화석산지(천연기념물 제222호)에서는 Koreanaornis hamanensis와 Jindongornipes kimi로 명명된 두 종의 새발자국이 발견되었으며, 용각류 발자국과 생흔화석 Cochlichnus도 보고되었다. 특히 Koreanaornis hamanensis는 세계에서 두 번째로 기록된 새발자국 화석종으로 학술적 가치가 매우 뛰어나다. 이 일대는 구들장용 판석의 채석장이었으며, 1969년에 세계적 희귀 화석지로 알려지면서 크게 훼손되어, 현재는 지정 당시의 25% 정도가 잔존한다. 함안층은 경상누층군의 하양층군에 속하며 주로 적회색의 미사암과 흑색의 이암이 교호하는 암상을 보인다. 미사암과 이암의 경계는 점이적이며, 연흔과 건열 등의 퇴적 구조가 뚜렷하다. 연구 지역의 퇴적암은 퇴적 순서와 구조 및 암상에 따라 총 7개의 지층으로 구분되며, 새발자국 화석은 최상부층에서 나타난다. 비파괴 손상도 평가 결과, 화학적·생물학적 손상은 7개 지층에서 모두 매우 낮게 나타났다. 물리적 손상도의 경우 박락 0.49%, 박리 0.04%, 탈락 0.28%로 매우 낮은 손상률을 보였다. 그러나 절리 등 불연속면의 균열지수는 6.20으로 비교적 높으며, 배면과 북서측의 표면은 하등생물의 피복이 심하여 지층의 단면을 중심으로 염에 의한 백화현상이 관찰된다. 화석산지의 초음파 물성은 전반적으로 중간풍화단계(MW)를 보였다. 특히 공룡발자국이 있는 남서측 부근이 상대적으로 신선하며, 보호각 기둥 주위로 풍화가 진전된 양상을 보였다. 이 화석산지에 발달한 불연속면은 5종류로서 가장 높은 점유율을 보이는 불연속면은 층리면이다. 평사투영으로 사면의 안정성을 분석한 결과, 평면 및 쐐기파괴에는 안정적이지만 전도파괴의 가능성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이 화석산지의 종합적인 손상 정도 및 안정성은 양호한 것으로 판단되나, 화석층의 물리화학적 풍화와 보호각 기둥과 접하는 모르타르의 백화현상 등은 제어하기 어려운 상태로 보여, 지속적인 모니터링과 보존처리 및 관리가 수행되어야 할 것이다.
Contemporary University students are considered the Z generation who were born after 1995. They are more tech savvy than millennials. To target the generation, traditional class management platforms have evolved to smart LMS that is more customized and accessible for smart devices. Global level information search and collaboration can also be implemented using such smart LMS. However, switching from one LMS to another LMS requires great effort from teachers and support from staffs. This study measured the learners’ perception of the system when they were exposed to a new smart-LMS. Blackboard Learn Ultra was used for 15 weeks and at the end of the semester, a questionnaire was administered to the students of these classes. Results indicated that experience with previous LMS discouraged students from adopting Blackboard Learn. Result of TAM modeling indicated that perceived usefulness, compared to perceived ease of use and attitude, was an effective aspect to bring positive acceptance of the system. A qualitative approach and network analysis were also conducted based on students’ responses. Both positive and negative responses were detected. Inconvenience due to mechanical aspects was mentioned. Dissatisfaction compared to previous local LMS use was also mentioned. Mobile application and communication effectiveness were positive aspects. Revised course development and promoting how useful the system may help enhance the acceptance of the new system.