http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Recent specifications have adopted moment-rotation relationships for I-section girders with yield strengths up to 485 MPa to realize adequate and reliable ductility and the development of strength significantly greater than the yield moment. In this study, experiments were performed in order to verify the inelastic moment strength and examine an equation that appropriately expresses the inelastic moment-rotation response of high-strength steel I-section girders in the negative moment region. Three test girder specimens were fabricated and tested to their ultimate bending strengths up to failure. The test results were compared with the maximum strengths predicted for I-girders by finite element analysis and the nominal moment-plastic rotation curve in the specifications. A sufficiently redundant shakedown behavior was revealed by the comparison, which experimentally confirmed the adequacy of the current design equation for the moment-plastic rotation curve to 690 MPa grade steel I-girders. Based on the experimental results, conclusions were drawn regarding the inelastic moment-rotation behavior.
To improved the tobacco qualities, the tobacco leaves are treated by bulk-sweating method for 6 month and are compared with non-treated leaves by the chemical analysis and organoleptic sensory test. The following results are obtained. 1) The component of total nitrogen, alkaloid and sugar are decreased to 0.4, 1.2, 6.2 and pHO.8 respectively. 2) The ether extract, volatile and non-volatile organic acid are increased to 2.3, 0.8% and 99.2% respectively. 3) amylase and -amylase are decreased to half one to quarter respectively. 4) The organoleptic sensory test that tobacco qualities are superior to non- treated samples.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of storage period on the physico-chemical properties of tobacco leaves expanded by $CO_2$. The flue-cured and burley tobacco leaves produced from 1996 to 1999 were processed, and stored for that year or 3 years in processing plant. As compared with 1996 crop, the expanded rate of flue-cured tobacco leaves in 1999 crop was higher approximately 18%, while that of burley was higher about 10%. The filling capacity of cigarettes was decreased as storage time became shorter, but the combustibility was improved. The rate of large particles (over 3.36mm) of expanded tobacco showed decreasing tendency as the storage period became longer. The change rate of chemical contents in tobacco leaves between before and after expansion had no significant difference among corp years. The tar and CO contents of cigarettes smoke were reduced in the case of flue-cured tobacco leaves as storage time became shorter, while they were slightly increased in the case of burley tobacco leaves. The ammonia content of burley leaves was decreased remarkably in 1996 and 1999 crop.
This paper describes the generation and decay phenomena of gas, vapor and particulate phase components of environmental tobacco smoke in 18 m3 controlled experimental atmosphere chamber. Real time-weighted average concentration ratios of markers were determinated at no ventilation rates and sampling durations of starting to smoking 45 min. Average concentration of major ETS markers was no significant on the mainstream smoke contents of commercial cigarette and decay ratios were dependent on first order kinetic. RSP/nicotine, solanesol and 3-EP were good predictors of ETS concentration in the public indoor field. The concentration ratio of vapor phase and particulate phase components is highly variable to assessment of indoor air quality with ETS. Key words : ETS, chamber study, ETS markers.
This study was carried out to investigate the transfer rate of I-menthol constituent into cigarette case and delivery rate to cigarette smoke. Test sample was used a light-type standard brand cigarette made in Korea. I-Menthol contents was measured according to A.O.A.C(1990) method by G.C and smoking conditions was a puff volume of 35$m\ell$ and 2.0s duration, taken once per minute to filter tipping paper plus 3mmwith 20 cigarettes. Migration rate of menthol into cigarette case had an interrelation with triacetin contents into filter and 6% triacetin level was most suitable. I-Menthol transferred to filter part from tobacco sheet by 20.2% in one month after cigarette manufacture, and the transfer was continued subsequently. Maximum menthol transfer in five months was 4.1% to foils and other packing materials and the loss outside of cigarette pack was also 3.9% below. The migration balance of menthol into cigarette pack and the delivery to cigarette smoke were the optimum condition when menthol was added at the ration of 30% in filter to 70% in the other parts into cigarette.
A gas chromatographic procedure is described which permits seperation and determination of nonvolatile organic acids and higher fatty acids simultaneously in tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate. The transfer rates from cigarettes to main stream smoke were examined for eight of the nonblending cigarettes. Average transfer rates for three varieties tobacco leaves, respectively were linolenic 31 and 62% linoleic 21 and 59% palmitic 29 and 38% malic 4 and 6%. Gas Chromatography를 이용하여 잎담배와 연기응축물 중의 비휘발성유기산과 지방산을 정량 분석하였다. 특히 이들 유기산들은 단엽담배일 때 주류연으로 이행율을 조사하였는 바 linolenic acid, 31~62%, linoleic, 21~59% palmitic 29~38%, malic acid 4~6% 정도의 이행율을 보였다.
From the combination of cigarette papers, tipping papers and plug wrapping papers, whose physical properties and effect of cigarette smoke dilution were studied. The result obtained from this study are as follows. Envelop ventilation (Env-V'R) cigarettes used high porous cigarette papers showed less changes of unencapsulated pressure drop VPD) compared to tip ventilation (Tip-VR) cigarettes. Higher cigarette paper porosity increased, more decreased the WD of cigarette by Tip-VR. With cigarette length shortening, the UPD or VR changed a little in Tip-VR cigarette, while changed very much in Env-VR cigarettes. The ratio of nicotine/tar was higher in Env-VB cigarettes than in Tip-VR cigarettes, and CO/nicotine value of the former was lower than those of the later. The effect of Tip-VR cigarettes on the delivery reduction of tar and nicotine was more effective compared to Env-VR cigarettes and the reduction prefer Env-VR cigarettes to Tip-VR cigarettes in CO delivery. From the results investigated above it was noted that each defect appeared in the Tip-VR and the Env-VR cigarettes could be complemented by the combination of them.