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We reviewed art education in French primary school curriculum from modeling educational view From the primary school, whole curriculum of art education in French is based on two objects First one is academic aesthetic and the second one is culture. Depend on the grade, with some difference, Curriculum containing Practice of modeling arts, learning knowledge of arts, and culture, introduction and explanation of arts works And let the student recognize the difference in all the form of arts But it is also important to know all the difference is not simply meaning positive means and arts. The whole modeling arts education should based on related modeling practice of arts and creative arts (arts and creative process, knowledge) Endless exchange of arts and practice will introduce students to culture of arts (acquire knowledge) gradually And also emphasize that should be extended to related subject. The currently emphasized thing in form art education is using all available material (postal card, Photo, slide, video, movie, computer etc) will be helpful in education and touching with authentic art material or the artist's atelier it could. And the curriculum also emphasizes on doing such activity likes visiting museum, gallery, and cultural place to see of feel the articles, and talk with artist But the most important factor in French art education will be the national atmosphere of French Such as cultural policy and it's heritage of arts. If you had a chance to travel m French, you would know there is a lot of old church from 10th century, and all metro city such as Pans there is a big cathedral and huge and beautiful castle The children raised in this atmosphere such beautiful buildings and sculpture decorating these building and the real masterpiece of arts displayed in that building, can naturally feel the authentic beauty, and the French already possessed these cultural soil. The French, stands alone in the world as a developed country of arts with these soil of arts and its endless searching of it's cultural identity.
Water is an essential resource for human survival. According to the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050, rapid industrialization and a global population increase by approximately two billion will likely increase global water use by 55% in 2050. However, water depletion has been getting worse than before and has been happening more quickly, as Earth's water resources are limited. The present study proposes water management measures by using the virtual water theory which enables water consumption measurement and the confirmation and recognition of water scarcity problems, and will support the development of countermeasures. As a method for estimating the value of agricultural water, virtual water theory was used to calculate the amount of agricultural water input for domestic rice and to apply prices of agricultural water in the United States and China to Korean water prices. When the Chinese price was applied to Korean water prices, the value of agricultural water represented 0.3% of the Korean rice producer's price. When the US price was applied to Korean water prices, the value of agricultural water represented 1.6% of the domestic rice producer's price. The study exposes the percentage of the value of agricultural water in agricultural product prices, as well as how this scare resource may affect future prices. In the future, if there are water charges to effectively manage agricultural water, this study, which uses the virtual water theory, can be used as a preliminary research.
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This study was designed to evaluate relative performance of four multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models (Bi-factor, Testlet-response, Simple-structure, Second-order MIRT models) which could reflect the structure of testlet-based tests, and traditional unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) models in equating with real and simulated data sets. Based upon the results of this study, the following conclusions can be made. First, four MIRT models produced very similar IRT observed-score equating relationships for the tests composed of testlets. Second, the equating results from the UIRT and MIRT models were not easily differentiated from the practical point of view for real data analyses. Third, based upon the results from simulated data analyses, the UIRT model produced significantly different equating relationships compared to those from the MIRT models and showed bigger biases when data were significantly departed from the unidimensionality assumption. In the case of significant departure from the unidimensionality assumption, it would be recommended to use the MIRT models rather than the UIRT models in equating scores from tests composed of testlets. 이 연구는 단위검사로 구성된 검사의 구조를 모형에 반영할 수 있는 4가지 다차원 문항반응이론 모형(Bi-factor, Testlet Response, Simple-structure, Second-order MIRT 모형)과 전통적으로 사용되어 온 일차원 문항반응이론 모형을 실제 자료와 모의실험 자료에 적용하여 동등화 결과를 비교하여 각 모형의 상대적인 동등화 수행능력을 평가하고자 하였다. 결론은 다음과 같이 요약될 수 있다. 첫째, 이 연구에서 검토된 4가지 MIRT 모형 관찰점수 동등화 결과는 단위검사로 구성된 검사의 동등화에서 유사한 결과를 산출하였다. 둘째, 실제 자료를 활용한 분석에서 일차원 문항반응이론 모형은 다차원 문항반응이론 모형과 거의 차이를 확인할 수 없을 정도의 유사한 동등화 결과를 산출하였다. 셋째, 가상자료를 바탕으로 한 분석에서, 일차원성 가정 이탈 수준이 높은 경우, 일차원 문항반응이론 모형에 기반한 동등화 방법은 다차원 문항반응이론 모형에 기반한 동등화 방법과 다른 동등화 결과를 산출하였고, 동등화 편의가 큰 것으로 나타났다. 문항반응이론의 일차원성 가정의 위배가 큰 경우, 단위검사로 구성된 검사의 동등화에 다차원 문항반응이론 모형을 적용한 동등화 방법을 사용하는 것이 타당할 것이다.