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과거 1960~70년대에 급격한 경제발전으로 인하여 국내에는 수많은 건물이 건설되었으며, 특히 2000년 이후에는 대형화, 첨단화된 수많은 건물들이 건설이 되고 있다. 이러한 건물의 전 생애주기 비용 (Life Cycle Cost) 중, 운영 및 유지관리 단계 비용은 전체의 약 85%를 차지 (Teicholz 2004)하고 있어 건축물에 대한 효율적인 자산관리가 강조된다. 하지만 운영 및 유지관리 단계에서 필요한 정보들은 초기 기획 단계부터 설계, 시공 단계를 넘어오면서 각각의 정보들의 호환이 부족하다. 단계를 거듭할수록 정보에 대한 가치는 증가하지만 정보의 상호 호환의 부족으로 인하여 비효율적인 부분이 발생하고 있다 (Foster 2011). 본 연구에서는 먼저 발주자 관점에서 자산관리의 주요 업무기능을 3개의 대분류와 19개의 중분류로 도출하였다. 다음으로는 도출한 항목들을 바탕으로 자산관리 업무량의 비중, 자산관리 업무별 소요 데이터의 비중, 그리고 생애주기 단계별로 발생하는 데이터의 비중에 대한 평가방법론을 제안함으로써, 효율적인 운영 및 유지관리를 위한 방안을 제안하였다. 마지막으로, 제안된 방법론은 공공 및 민간 기업의 사례를 바탕으로 적용성을 검토하였다. In the 1960s and 1970s when Korea experienced rapid economic growth, a considerable number of buildings were constructed in the country. And since 2000, a large number of sizable and complex buildings have been being built. Specifically, as the operation and maintenance cost alone accounts for 85% of the life cycle cost of a building, efficient Facility Management (FM) is required. However, data needed in the operation and maintenance phase are not sufficiently exchangeable with data created in other phases like the planning, design and construction phases. The upper phase has higher value of data but data exchange rate is low, resulting in inefficiency. To this end, this research derived major business functions for facility management: three categories and 19 detailed functions in classification from owner's perspective. Based on the derived items, this research proposes a methodology to evaluate the 'FM Workload', 'Facility Management (FM) Data', and 'FM Data Created in Engineering and Construction Phases' thereby analyzing plans for efficient operation and maintenance. The applicability of proposed methodology was tested by examining real-world cases of public and private companies.
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This paper presents a new perspective on Father Mapple and his sermon in Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick. Mapple is the preacher of Whaleman’s Chapel in New Bedford, which Ishmael happens to visit and listens to his sermon on the Book of Jonah of the Old Testament. Different from the traditional interpretations of the sermon, this paper compares it with the original bible text. It shows the clear difference between the two, which can be regarded as the evidence that his sermon is not quite orthodox or Calvinistic. The unique theology of the sermon, this paper asserts, shows the author’s own theology when he wrote the novel. The sermon provides a theological framework of the Pequod as an independent society, which, like Jonah, contains both a great defiance and hatred toward god-like Moby Dick (Captain Ahab) and self-denying obedience toward god-like Ahab (Ishmael and sailors).
Recently, the problem with the right to dignity is the interest things in our society. The issue erupted into Korean public consciousness on May 21, 2009, with the news that the Supreme Court upheld that the patient entered irrecoverable death stage and her intention for discontinuance of life-extending treatment can be inferred as an element for discontinuing life-extending treatment. In the United States, Oregon state enacted the Death with Dignity Act in 1994, and Washington state adopted the Natural Death Act in 2009. The former allows terminally ill adults seeking to end their life to request lethal doses of medication from medical physicians. The latter allows the adult persons have the fundamental right to control the decisions relating to the rendering of their own health care, including the decision to have life-sustaining treatment withhold or withdraw in instance of a terminal condition or permanent unconscious condition. Now there lively dispute of legal policy on the preconditions and concrete procedure of natural death act and dignity death act in the Korea National Assembly. Through the legislation of natural death act, we should prepare some circumstances to respect patient’s autonomy on the right to die. We get good point of suggestion in the bill of the right to die with dignity or natural death.
This study presents the analysis and the approach of its for commercial scale oxy-coal-fired power plant. Also, it is possible to support feasible study and data of a design for ongoing various studies of oxy-coal-fired generation system using this study. For an approach of the system, we suggest a method of simplification and an approach, and an evaluation with selected cases. The system is simply divided into four blocks; air separation unit (ASU), carbon dioxide processing unit (CPU), water-steam side, and air-gas side. Using the concept of system-separation, the main variables of the system can be chosen such as energy consumption of ASU and CPU and flue gas recirculation (FGR) rate. Independent blocks and inter-dependent blocks are suggested as the method of an approach. Performance analysis is performed based on the system heat and mass balance and simple performance parameters such as the fuel to power efficiency, the exergy analysis based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics and variation of gas composition with cases. Cases are selected for comparative evaluation, based on the site-specific requirements.
Aero space electronic equipment is exposed to a variety of environment conditions such as pressure, density, temperature, and so on. Especially, effect of different altitudes is important for designing electronic equipment in aerial vehicle. Therefore, we use dummy-heater board instead of electric board under the same hardware of electronic equipment and verify thermal reliability in hardware of electronic equipment using experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) methods. Additional boundary conditions are added to modeling for CFD. On this paper, CFD predictions and experimental data are analysed for electronic equipment using dummy-heater under different altitudes. Thermal reliability of modeling for CFD is checked. As the results, CFD predictions of modeling are matched well with experimental data.