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With a long history, Chinese language education in Korea is rich in resources and gets brilliant achievements. Especially there are so many textbooks and other supplementary books about Chinese learning. Lao Qida and Piao Tongshi are the most important textbooks which widely used by Chinese learners in ancient Korea. They have played an important role in Chinese language education. This article attempts to analyze the compilation characteristics of Lao Qida and Piao Tongshi. And also compares it with the compilation characteristics of modern Chinese learning textbooks.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals and causes severe economic loss and devastating effect on international trade of animal or animal products. Since FMD outbreaks have recently occurred in some Asian countries, it is important to understand the relationship between diverse immunogenomic structures of host animals and the immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We performed genome wide association study based on high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for identifying FMD resistant loci in Holstein cattle. Among 624532 SNP after quality control, we found that 11 SNPs on 3 chromosomes (chr17, 22, and 15) were significantly associated with the trait at the p.adjust <0.05 after PERMORY test. Most significantly associated SNPs were located on chromosome 17, around the genes Myosin XVIIIB and Seizure related 6 homolog (mouse)-like, which were associated with lung cancer. Based on the known function of the genes nearby the significant SNPs, the FMD resistant animals might have ability to improve their innate immune response to FMDV infection.
Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling and preventing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks. The effective prevention of this disease requires the use ofhigh-quality vaccines to meet the criteria that enable customers to use them simply. The administration of FMD vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants in pigs can induce the formation of granuloma in the muscle of the vaccinated, which makes these vaccines a less preferable option. Therefore, it is important to establish an FMD vaccine and vaccine delivery tool that offers better immunity and safer application. This study compared the immune responses of intramuscular and needleless intradermal vaccination in pigs. When the same amount of an FMD virus (FMDV) antigen was administered to pigs, both the intradermally and intramuscularly vaccinated groups were protected completely against a challenge ofthe homologous FMDV, but the intramuscularly vaccinated group showed an overall higher level of neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, the formation of granuloma in muscle could be excluded in the intradermally vaccinated group. Of the oil-based adjuvants selected in this study, ISA 207 was effective in eliciting immunogenicity in intradermal vaccination. In conclusion, a new vaccine formula can be chosen for the delivery of intradermal route to exclude the possibility of local reactions in the muscle and generate protective immunity against an FMDV challenge.