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In the Kimchi manufacturing industry, the process of brining baechu produces a vast amount of high salinity waste water. To study if this brine can be recycled, the quality characteristics of Kimchi salted by waste brine (F), which was used five times successively, was compared with those salted using water after recycling filtration through sand (Fl) and activated carbon (F2) columns. No significant difference in the salinity and soluble solid contents, during fermentation at 10℃ was observed among the samples, but the salinity and soluble solid contents of the F-sample were slightly higher than in the control. The Fl and control Kimchi showed similar pHs and titratable acidities, while the F-Kimchi had a lower pH and a higher acidity during fermentation. The numbers of total viable cells were highest in the F, and lowest in the F2-Kimchi, while the counts of lactic acid bacteria were lowest in the F-Kimchi. The sensory tests for appearance, odor, taste and overall acceptance showed that the F-Kimchi was the least desirable, the F2-Kimchi had lower sour odor and taste, and a higher toughness, than the others. The Fl- and control Kimchi had similar sensory grades for appearance, odor, and tastes, and there were no significant difference in the overall acceptance, showing the possibility of recycling waste waters as brine for the production of baechu Kimchi.
The expression of BCL-2 interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), an antistress or anti-apoptotic protein, has been shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) upon various stresses. Recently, HSF1 was also shown to bind to BIS, but the significance of these protein-protein interactions on HSF1 activity has not been fully defined. In the present study, we observed that complete depletion of BIS using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in A549 non-small cell lung cancer did not affect the induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP27 mRNAs under various stress conditions such as heat shock, proteotoxic stress, and oxidative stress. The lack of a functional association of BIS with HSF1 activity was also demonstrated by transient downregulation of BIS by siRNA in A549 and U87 glioblastoma cells. Endogenous BIS mRNA levels were significantly suppressed in BIS knockout (KO) A549 cells compared to BIS wild type (WT) A549 cells at the constitutive and inducible levels. The promoter activities of BIS and HSP70 as well as the degradation rate of BIS mRNA were not influenced by depletion of BIS. In addition, the expression levels of the mutant BIS construct, in which 14 bp were deleted as in BIS-KO A549 cells, were not different from those of the WT BIS construct, indicating that mRNA stability was not the mechanism for autoregulation of BIS. Our results suggested that BIS was not required for HSF1 activity, but was required for its own expression, which involved an HSF1-independent pathway.
봄배추를 16.5%의 염수로 5회 반복사용하여 절이는 과정에서 초기염수, 절임염수, 세척수, 탈수액, 혼합수등 폐염수들의 염도, pH, 가용성 고형물, COD 및 총 균수를 조사하였다. 초기염수에서 절임후 염도는 전체 적으로 약 2%정도 감소됨을 알 수 있었고, 혼합폐염수는 약 7.5%였다. 절임에 따라 염수의 pH가 낮아졌고 탈수액의 pH도 절임반복에 따라 낮아져 pH 6.0 이하를 나타내었다. 절임염수의 가용성 고형물은 반복 횟수가 증가함에 따라 증가하였고 혼합 폐염수의 고형물도 약 8∼9°Brix로 반복에 따라 조금씩 증가하였다. COD값은 세척수를 제외하면 모든 시료에서 청정지역의 배출허용기준인 50 ppm이상이었고, 반복횟수에 따라 증가하는 추세를 나타내었다. 총균수도 반에 따라 누적효과에 의해 증가하는 경향을 보였고 탈수액 시료에서 가장 높은 값을 나타내었다. The characteristics of salinity, pH, soluble solid content, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and microbial changes of wastewater from the 5-repeated salting and washing processes of spring Chinese cabbage for Kimchi were investigated. The salinities of salting brines were decreased from the initial brine as the salting processes repeated, and resulted 7.5% of salinity for total waste water. The pH values were decreased with the number of reuse of brines, and showed below pH 6.0 after five times repetition. Soluble-solids contents of total waste water were about 8-9° Brix and were increased as the salting processes repeated. All samples except washing water showed above 50 ppm of COD values. Both COD values and total microbial counts of brines were increased as the salting process repeated.