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With the rapid management and technology surroundings and the born-limitation, international new ventures(INVs) would like to enter into new global markets more rapidly. In spite of the fact that a large number of scholars have an interest to investigate the rapid internationalization, little study has studied the internationalization comprehensively. Therefore, this study would like to investigate the empirical relationships among entrepreneurial orientation, technology orientation, market orientation, and internationalization, based on the INVs. According to the empirical results, entrepreneurial and technology orientation have a significant positive effects on market orientation. Next, market orientation has a significant positive effect on internationalization. Finally, market orientation mediated the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and internationalization, and technology orientation and internationalization. As well, several implications for researchers and practitioners, limitation of this study and future direction were suggested. 경영 및 기술환경의 급격한 변화, 그리고 태생적 한계에 직면한 중소규모의 벤처기업들은 국내시장에서 벗어나 국제시장에 신속하게 진출하고자 한다. 이러한 급진적인 국제화는 국제경영분야에 있어 새로운 현상으로 각광을 받고 있지만, 포괄적인 연구는 부족한 편이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 급진적인 국제화를 추구하는 국제신생벤처기업을 대상으로 그들이 가지고 있는 기업가지향성과 기술지향성이 시장지향성과 국제화 수준에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 실증적으로 알아보고자 하는 데 목적을 두고 있다. 이를 위해 총 500부의 설문지를 배포하였으며, 이중 247부를 최종분석에 사용하였다. 실증분석 결과, 기업가지향성과 기술지향성 모두가 시장지향성에 유의한 정(+)의 영향을 미쳤으며, 시장지향성은 국제화 수준에 유의한 정(+)의 영향을 미치고 있었다. 다음으로 시장지향성이 기업가지향성 및 기술지향성과 국제화 수준 간 관계에서 매개변수로서 역할을 하는지 알아본 결과, 시장지향성은 이들 변수 간 관계를 부분적으로 매개해주었다. 이는 국제화 수준을 향상시키기 위해 기업가지향성 및 기술지향성과 함께 시장지향성을 통해야 한다는 사실을 시사해주고 있다.
Purpose: To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Methods: Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Conclusion: Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.
Experiential education is a core curriculum of pharmacy education. In experiential education, formative feedback is an integralcomponent of learning and teaching process. Feedback is defined as information provided by a preceptor regarding student’sperformance based on direct observation. With effective feedback, students can have opportunities to reinforce or correctbehaviors and to acquire knowledge or skills. Students highly value and appreciate feedback. They rank provision of effectivefeedback as one of the most important qualities of preceptors. Preceptors, however, lack an understanding of feedback or practicalskills necessary for providing effective feedback. As a result in reality, the feedback provided to students can be differentiallyeffective in improving students’ learning. This article describes a theoretical understanding of feedback including definition andvalue, as well as types of feedback. In addition, practical aspects in providing feedback, such as contents, timing, techniques, andmodels, are addressed. By understanding the value of feedback and mastering various feedback skills, preceptors will promotestudents’ learning and enhance educational outcomes of experiential education.
Background and Objectives: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performances of grayscale ultrasound (US) and quantitative parameters obtained from texture analysis of grayscale US and elastography images in evaluating patients with diffuse thyroid disease (DTD). Materials and Methods: From September to December 2012, 113 patients (mean age, 43.4±10.7 years) who had undergone preoperative staging US and elastography were included in this study. Assessment of the thyroid parenchyma for the diagnosis of DTD was made if US features suggestive of DTD were present. Nine histogram parameters were obtained from the grayscale US and elastography images, from which ‘grayscale index’ and ‘elastography index’ were calculated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, texture analysis using grayscale US and elastography were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 113 patients, 85 (75.2%) patients were negative for DTD and 28 (24.8%) were positive for DTD on pathology. The presence of US features suggestive of DTD showed significantly higher rates of DTD on pathology, 60.7% to 8.2% (p<0.001). Specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value was highest in US features, 91.8%, 84.1%, and 87.6%, respectively (all ps<0.05). Grayscale index showed higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than US features. All diagnostic performances were higher for grayscale index than the elastography index. Area under the curve of US features was the highest, 0.762, but without significant differences to grayscale index or mean of elastography (all ps>0.05). Conclusion: Diagnostic performances were the highest for grayscale US features in diagnosis of DTD. Grayscale index may be used as a complementary tool to US features for improving sensitivity and NPV.
Women who have been treated for breast cancer are at risk for second breast cancers, such as ipsilateral recurrence or contralateral metachronous breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, interest in patient management and surveillance after treatment has also increased. However, post-treatment surveillance programs for patients with breast cancer have not been firmly established. In this review, we focus on the imaging modalities that have been used in post-treatment surveillance for patients with breast cancer, such as mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, the effectiveness of each modality for detecting recurrence, and how they can be applied to manage patients.