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Objective : Acupuncture therapy is known as a effective method to pain control including elbow area pain. To make clear about effectiveness of acupuncture affecting to recovery of grip power for the patient with elbow area pain, we compare the patients recieved acupuncture treatment to people with elbow pain unrecieved acupuncture treatment. Material and Methods : This clinical study has been carried out with 30 cases of patients with elbow area pain. 20 patients divides into two groups were treated by acupuncture in MPS with elbow area. Two groups were radial area pain group and ulnar area pain group. The other 10 people with elbow area pain working a resturant in Ilsan were no treatment. The study was applicated and estimated grip power before 1 st treatment and after each treatment for 4 days. Results : 1. In the radial area pain group, the acupuncture treatment is more effective than no treatment (p<0.007). 2. In the ulnar area group, the acupuncture treatment is more effective than no treatment (p<0.037). 3. The effectiveness of acupunctrue treatment is no differnce between radial area pain and ulnar area pain(P<0.529) 4. In the elbow area pain group, the acupuncture treatment is more effective than no treatment (p<0.001). Conclusion : These results shows that acupuncture treatment is effective in elbow area pain.
Low back pain (LBP) is a significant in today's society, with lifetime include factors associated with LBP ar reporter. Among the causes, aberration of posture may play a role in the development of LBP. Many investigators have assessed the curvature of spine in standing posture. But LBP is associated with Lumber Hyperlordosis of Hyperlordosis is controversial Subjects: In conservative treatment(acupuncture, herb med, manipulation & TENS. exercise, potural correction) for a 40 years old woman who had low back pain(V AS) be caused by decrease lumbar lordotic angie. Objectives: The object is change of lumbar lordotic angle of a 40 years old woman who had low back pain with Lumbar hyperlordosis, In conservative treatment. Method: In conservative treatment, We added taping therapy(mechanical correction taping of Kinesio Taping) about Lumbar Lordosis. Conclusion: We experienced a 40 years old woman who had love pack pain with Lumbar hyperlordosis. In conservative treatment, Her pain was Improved by additional taping therapy In company with decrease of Lumbar Lordosis. 1. abnormal spinal curvature, specially lumbar hyperlordosis act on induction & perpetuation agent for low back pain 2. In a patient had low back pain with lumbar hyperlordosis, change of lumbar lordotic angle is of utility value for the effect of treatment and assessment of prognosis. 3. pain control is more relative with change of lumbosacral angle than lumbar lordotic angle, in patient had low back pain with lumbar hyperlordosis. 4. mechanical taping therapy with elastic adhesive tape is effective for patient had low back pain with lumbar hyperlordosis
Objective: The muscle pattern excercise(MPE) is freqeuntly usde to enhance stroke rehabilitation. and the electroacupunture(EA) is also used to facililitate stroke rehabilitation. Although many studies have indicated that each MPE and EA might improve the motor and functional recovery, there is no study about using MPE and EA simultaneously for effective treating for stroke rehabilitation especially lower extremity function. So we compare the effect between electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity and simultaneously elbow exercise on unaffected upper extremity and only electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity. Methods: 53 stroke patients with hemiplegic stroke were randomized into two groups. 28 patients were treated by electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity and simultaneously elbow exercise on unaffected upper extremity. The other 25 patients were treated by only electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity. The study was applicated a day for 20 days. The frequency of stimulation was 2Hz and intensity was set at a level sufficient to include muscle contraction. The elbow exercise was elbow flexion and extension. Outcome were assessed by weight difference of both leg, Fugl-Meyer score, Medical research council scale, modified Ashworth sclae, modified Barthel index and NIH. Results: By the end of treatment, the sample group showed significantly more improvement than the control group in the section of weight difference of both leg, Fugl-Meyer score, Motor Power, modified Barthel index. Conclusion: These results support that electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity and simultaneously unaffected elbow exercise is more effective than only electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity for Stroke rehabilitation.
우로부치 겐이 각본을 담당한 샤프트 원작 TV 애니메이션 〈마법소녀 마도카☆마기카〉(2011)는 ‘마법소녀’라는 얼핏 꿈과 희망으로 가득할 것만 같은 소재를 사용하여 냉혹한 현실을 진지하게 반영한 역설적 작품으로 흔히 여겨진다. 이러한 평가는 대개 작품 속에서 묘사되는 불행과 절망을 강조하는 과정에서 주인공 마도카를 통해 이루어지는 ‘대속(substitution)’의 사건을 단순히 비현실적 요소로 치부하는 경향이 있다. 지난 10년 동안 작품에 대해 제시된 수많은 비평이 대속의 사건이 지닌 의의를 제대로 강조한 적이 없다는 사실은 대단히 의아하다. 모든 마법소녀를 비극적 운명에서 구원하기 위해 한 명의 마법소녀가 스스로 희생을 선택한다는 이야기는 그 자체로 이미 대속 서사이다. 작품을 단순히 ‘이단적 마법소녀물’로 규정하는 비평은 마도카가 다른 사람을 위해 희생을 선택하는 방식으로 비극적 운명을 넘어서는 희망을 증명한다는 사실을 간과하고 만다. 우리는 이야기가 말하는 희망을 이해하기 위해 작품을 미리 전제된 해석의 틀에 억지로 끼워 맞추려는 시도를 극복해야 한다. 본고는 우선 그동안 제시된 수많은 비평이 작품에 흐르고 있는 서사보다는 작품에 나타난 ‘절망적 세계관’과 ‘장르 해체적 시도’에만 과도하게 주목하였다고 비판할 것이다(Ⅱ). 다음으로, 작품이 보여주고 있는 이야기를 충실하게 기술하기 위해 ‘현상학적 서사 분석’이라는 비평의 방법을 해명할 것이다(Ⅲ). 여기서 ‘마법소녀’는 다른 사람을 위해 비극적 운명을 감당하는 자로서 ‘타자를 위한 존재’라는 사실이 드러날 것이다(Ⅳ). 또한 타자를 위한 존재가 빠지게 되는 불행과 절망은 작품을 통해 ‘마녀’라는 모습으로 상징적으로 표현된다는 사실이 지적될 것이다(Ⅴ). 그러나 ‘발푸르기스의 밤’으로 대표되는 마법소녀의 비극적 운명은 작품 속에서 아무런 필연성도 지니지 않는다는 사실이 논증될 것이다(Ⅵ). 오히려 타자를 위해 희생하는 대속의 사건이야 말로 작품을 성립시키는 근원적 필연성이라는 사실이 주장될 것이다(Ⅶ). Shaft’s original TV animation Puella Magi Madoka Magica (2011), written by Gen Urobuchi, is often regarded as a paradoxical work that reflects harsh reality seriously, using a material “magical girl,” which seems to be filled with dreams and hopes. These evaluations, focusing on misery and despair depicted in the animation, usually tend to dismiss the event of substitution revealed through the heroine Madoka as an unrealistic element. It is strange that numerous criticisms of the work over the past decade have never properly emphasized the significance of the event of substitution. The story of the sacrifice of one magical girl to save every magical girl from the tragic fate is, in itself, a substitutionary narrative. The criticisms, which simply define the work as a “heretical magical girl genre,” overlook that Madoka proves hope beyond tragic fate by choosing the sacrifice for others. First, I will criticize that the numerous criticisms presented so far have focused excessively on the “hopeless world view” and the “genre deconstructive attempt” of the work, rather than on the narrative flowing in the work (Ⅱ). Next, I will explain the method of criticism called “phenomenological narrative analysis” to faithfully describe the story that the work is showing (Ⅲ). Here, it will be presented that the “magical girl” is “being there for others” who takes on the tragic fate for others (Ⅳ). Besides, it will be pointed out that the misery and despair of being there for others are symbolically expressed through the work in the form of “witch” (Ⅴ). However, it will be argued that the tragic fate of magical girls represented by Walpurgis Night has no necessity in the work (Ⅵ). Rather, it will be claimed that the event of substitution as the sacrifice for others is a fundamental necessity to establish the work (Ⅶ).
Objectives : To investigate therapeutic outcomes of back pain modalities in patients with disc herniation; Korean medical treatments(Herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture.). Methods : Operation(OP) recommended 20 patients with lumbar disc herniation were treated with chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture one times a week and took herbal medicine after a meal two times daily. The patients` symptoms were assessed 1 week, 2 week, 4 week, 6 week, 8 week by Visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI), 36-Item short-form health survey(SF-36). Results : 1. VAS(LBP and Sciatica) score was significantly improved after 8 weeks (P<0.05). 2. ODI, SF-36 score was significantly improved after 8 weeks (P<0.05). 3. There were significant changes in physical functioning(PF), bodily pain(BP), social functioning(SF), role emotinal(RE), mental health(MH) score of SF-36 after 8 weeks (P<0.05). Conclusions : This study suggests that Korean medical treatment(Herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture) can be applicable to improve symptoms in patients with lumbar disc herniation.
본고는 데카르트 이후 근대철학을 지배하였던 인식론적 입장인 ‘표상주의’를 헤겔의 경험 개념에 근거하여 비판하고자 한다. 첫째로, 본고는 ‘표상주의’가 수용하는 철학적 전제들을 살펴볼 것이다. 이를 통해 본고는 표상주의가 ‘독단주의’와 ‘회의주의’라는 두 가지 극단적인 면모를 지니고 있다는 사실을 드러낼 것이며, 이 입장이 주체와 객체 사이의 ‘대응’이라는 관계를 제대로 설명하지 못한다는 점을 지적할 것이다(Ⅱ). 둘째로, 본고는 헤겔의 철학에서 ‘변증법’이 지닌 의미에 대해 논의할 것이다. 여기서 본고는 변증법이 부정의 운동을 통해 끊임없이 모순을 극복해나가는 의식 경험의 과정이라는 점을 이야기할 것이며, 변증법을 바탕으로 경험을 이해하고자 하는 헤겔의 시도가 이전의 표상주의와는 어떠한 점에서 차이를 보이는지 비교할 것이다(Ⅲ). 셋째로, 본고는 경험의 ‘역사성’에 대해 다룰 것이다. 이 과정을 거치며 본고는 변증법이 경험의 역사성에 대한 함의를 지니고 있었음을 보일 것이며, 역사성을 무시하거나 극복하고자 하는 표상주의의 시도가 결국 실패할 수밖에 없음을 논증할 것이다(Ⅳ). This study will criticize representationalism, which is the dominant epistemological trend in modern philosophy after Descartes, on the basis of Hegel’s concept of experience. This study initially investigates the philosophical premises of representationalism and reveals that representationalism has two extreme aspects: dogmatism and skepticism. It will be explained that representationalism cannot explain the relationship of correspondence between subject and object (Ⅱ). Second, this study discusses the meaning of the dialectic in Hegel’s philosophy, claiming that the dialectic is the process of the experience of overcoming contradictions constantly with movement generated by negativity. Differences are suggested between Hegel’s dialectical understanding of experience and the representational understanding of experience (Ⅲ). Third, the study deals with the historicity of experience and shows that historicity is implied in Hegel’s dialectic. It will be argued that attempts at representationalism which overlook or overcome historicity cannot succeed in their goals (Ⅳ).
Objectives: Not only but also the muscle pattern excercise(MPE) is freqeuntly used to enhance gait rehabilitation after stroke. Although many studies have indicated that each EA and MPE might improve the gait and functional recovery, there is no study about using EA and MPE stimulateously for effectively treating for gait rehabilitation and funtional recovery after stroke. So we compare the effectiveness between electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity and stimulateously muscle pattern exercise on unaffected upper extremity and only electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity. Methods: 33 stroke patients with hemiplegic stroke were randomized into two groups. 18 patients were treated by electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity and stimulateously muscle pattern exercise on unaffected upper extremity. The other 15 patients were treated by only electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity. The study was applicated a day for 20 days. The frequency of stimulation was 2Hz and intensity was set at a level sufficient to include muscle contraction. The muscle pattern exercise was elbow extension. Outcome were assessed by weight difference of both leg, modified Barthel index and temporal distant gait analysis, for example gait velocity, cadence, stride length, steps length, based of support. Results: By the end of treatment, the sample group showed significantly more improvement than the control group in the section of weight difference of both leg, cadence, stride length, steps length. Conclusions: These results support that electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity and stimulateously muscle pattern exercise is more effective than only electroacupuncture on affected lower extremity for gait rehabilitation.
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The occurrence of neurologic symptom, for example cauda equina syndrome or disc rupture after Chuna treatment seems to be an uncommon event considering the large number of Chuna treatment performed. We experienced a woman who developed sudden complication after lumbar Chuna treatment. Patients in spinal hernation undergone Chuna treatment can be the causative factor in neurological symptom and must be considered in each case. Therefore, physicans and patients should be aware that neurological complication may occur as a result of lumba Chuna treatment.
본고는 객관세계로부터 주어지는 ‘실재의 저항’에 근거하여 인식을 위한 토대를 제공할 수 있다고 주장하는 하버마스의 형식화용론을 비판하고자 한다. 본고는 우선 해석학적 철학이 사실확인에 대한 의미-아프리오리의 우위를 인정한 나머지 인식의 객관성 문제를 다루지 못한 채 ‘언어적 세계개시의 관념론’에 빠지고 말았다는 하버마스의 견해에 대해 논의할 것이다(Ⅱ). 다음으로 해석학적 철학을 극복하기 위해 ‘실재의 저항’에 의존하는 형식화용론의 기획을 검토할 것이다. 첫째로, 형식화용론이 언어의 ‘의사소통적 기능’과 ‘서술적 기능’을 결합하여 세계내적 학습과정을 해명하려는 시도 속에서 실재의 저항을 강조한다는 점이 지적될 것이다(Ⅲ. 1.). 둘째로, 형식화용론이 실재의 저항을 단지 반박불가능한 특권적 믿음의 형태로 제시하고 있을 뿐 언어의 의사소통적 기능과 서술적 기능 사이의 모순을 해결하는 데 실패하고 만다는 사실이 드러날 것이다(Ⅲ. 2.). This study will criticize Habermas’ formal pragmatics, which claims to provide foundations for cognition based on the “resistance of the reality” given from the objective world. First, I will discuss the Habermas’ view that hermeneutic philosophy acknowledges privileging of an “a priori of meaning” [Sinnapriori] over the representation of facts and falls into “idealism of linguistic world” without addressing the objectivity of cognition (Ⅱ). Next, I will examine the plan of formal pragmatics, which depends on “the resistance of reality” to overcome hermeneutic philosophy. Thus, I will point out that formal pragmatics emphasizes the resistance of reality in an attempt to combine the “communicative functions” and “representational function” of language to explain the innerworldly learning processes (Ⅲ. 1.). Then, I will reveal that formal pragmatics, presenting the resistance of reality merely in the form of an irrefutable-privileged beliefs, fails to solve the contradiction between the communicative functions and representational functions of language (Ⅲ. 2.).
Objectives: This study evaluates neuroprotective effect of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on apoptosis in the cerebral infarct. Methods: Cerebral infarct was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 hours with intraluminal thread method in Sprague-Dawley rats. Then ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma was administered orally for 3 days. Infarct area and volume were evaluated with TTC staining. Neuronal apoptosis was identified with TUNEL labeling. Apoptosis modulatory effect was observed with immunohistochemical Bax, Bcl-2, iNOS, and MMP-9 expressions in penumbra. Results: 1. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced infarct size partly and volume significantly of in the MCAO rat brain. 2. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced TUNEL positive cell ratio in the penumbra of MCAO rat brain significantly. 3. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma suppressed Bax, iNOS and MMP-9 expression in the penumbra of MCAO rat brain significantly. 4. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma did not change Bcl-2 expression in the penumbra of MCAO rat brain. But expression ratio of Bcl-2 against Bax was increased in the Gastrodiae Rhizoma group. Conclusions: These results suggest that Gastrodiae Rhizoma plays an anti-apoptotic neuroprotective effect through suppression of Bax, iNOS, and MMP-9 expressions and relative up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the ischemic brain tissue.