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In a teleoperator, the participation of a human operator is always required, and the man-machine interface and the operator's abilities is an important issue. Recently, the different types of sensory feedback conditions(force, vision, sound, tactile, etc) for teleoperation is a very active research area in ergonomics. Among them, visual feedback condition is an important sense that can provide the information of task environment. Therefore, the sufficient understandings and investigation for human ability under various visual feedback conditions is required to establish the efficient man-machine interface of teleoperation In this research, we investigated the effect of three visual feedback conditions(direct viewing, one-monitor viewing, and two-monitors viewing) on the task performance of human operator in teleoperation task. The three different level of task difficulties under each conditions were performed by thirty-six subjects. The result of the experiments was analysed by the task difficulties, and the measurements of performance are the task completion time and the frequency of task errors. The result showed that the visual feedback conditions and the level of task difficulties have a significant effect on the task performance. For three level of task difficulties, the task completion time was the shortest under the condition of direct viewing. The number of task errors under the conditions of direct viewing and two-monitors viewing were reduced by more than half compare to that of one-monitor viewing.
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There are among the most relevant toxic emissions from incinerators such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase(EROD) activity in mammalian cell culture(EROD bioassay) is thought to be a selective and sensitive parameter used for the quantification of dioxin-like components. In this study, the toxic emissions from several school waste incinerators were evaluated by determination of CYPIA catalytic activity and cytotoxicity using cell culture microbioassay. The incinerator residue and soil samples were collected from the schools located in Kyunggi province from April to June 1999. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus using toluene for 20 hours. In order to clean-up, concentrated crude extracts were applied to basic alumina column. The EROD activities of extracts in the H4IIE cells were from 1.91 ±0.32 ng-TEQ/g to 24.54 ±3.48 ng-TEQ/g of biochemical-TEQ value. In soil samples, CYP1A catalytic activity was 0.09~0.64 ng-TEQ/g. EROD bioassay, seems to be a useful short-term bioassay when information about the biological response of complex environmental samples is needed. Although further study is needed, these results indicate that the potent toxic emissions are produced from school waste semi-incinerators.