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          윤이상의 대관현악곡 「예악(Re´ak)」 (1966) : "제 3의 공간"의 음향언어 Eine Klangsprache "im dritten Raum"

          윤신향 민족음악학회 2003 음악과 민족 Vol.26 No.-

          Diese Studie analysiert das representative Werk Isang Yuns fuer grosses Orchester: 「Reak」(1966). Die Analyse verbindet die Struktur-Analyse mit der Hoeranalyse der Klanggestalt. Als charakteristisch fuer die Klanggestalt des Stueckes werden folgende Merkmale herausgestellt: der Klang fliesst still und dynamisch, monistisch und heterophon entlang einer Wand-Flaeche in eine Richtung, und hat trotz aller heterophonen Zuege einen ganzheitlichen Charakter. Bei diesem wird stets eine fuer Yun eigentuemliche Spannung geladen. Das zweite Kapitel untersucht die Gestaltungsweisen der je eine Klanggruppe bildenden Instrumentengruppen. finsichtlich der musikalischen Semantlk sind die Konstellationen der Instrumentengruppen bzw. Klangfamilien von wichtiger Bedeutung. Im Laufe des Stueckes veraendem sich d e Klang gestaltender Instrumentengruppe gleichsam vom Kollekven zum Individuellen. Dies verursacht einen Funktionswandel der Einzelinstnunentengruppen: der Wandlungsprozess der koreanischen Mehrklangpeitsche Pakgruppe und Harfengruppe ist hierbei bedeutsam . Das naechste Kapitel analysiert am Beispiel des dntten Teils die bei 「Reak」vollendete Hauptklangtechnik. Das den Hauptklang konstruierende Tonbuendel fis3-gis-(cis2-e)-h bei der Floetengruppe, und h-cis-fis bei der Trompetengruppe bestehen aus einem Bruchteil des meldschen h-Moll-Tonleiter, so dass der Ton h den Charakter eines tonalen Zentnuns hat. Hinsichtlich des klanglichen Merkmals dieses Teils laesst sich es nicht verkennen, dass Yun versucht, den Charakteristik der koreanischen Musikelemente nicht allein n i t der westeuropaischen atonalen Technik zu vermitteln, sondem auch vermittels einer dramatischen Spannung mit der Eigenarten der musikahschen Romantik. Die Kraft des Gesamtklanges, die den Klangfuss dieses Stueckes traegt, liegt in der dynamischen Funktion der Hauptklaenge, die das Klangmaterial veraenderen und erweitem. Weiter wird das Verhaeltnis der Hauptklangkomposition Isang Yuns zur Klangflaechenkomposition Gyorgy Ligetis untersucht. Waehrend bei Ligeti die Einzeltoene nicht als solche wahrgenommen werden, haben Einzeltoene bei Yun eine gestaltbare Bedeutung und beanspruchen eine entsprechende Wahrnehmungsweise. Besonders kennzeichnend 1st die Ausdrucksgeste, mit sich die Hauptklaenge stets praesentieren. Ekachtenswert ist, dass solche Charakteristka normalerweise am Ende einer Phrase bzw. Abschnittes oder eines noch groesseren Teils vorkommen. Das Kemelement der Spannung, das dialektische Zuege und somit Widerspruch beinhaltet, liegt im Konfikt zwischen den Geste und Flaeche, also dem Klangfluss und Gegenstaendhchkeit, der bei der Verknuepfung mit der Klangflaechenkomposition verursacht wird. Das letzte Kapitel untemimmt eine kultursoziologische Interpretation ueber 「Reak」, der die vorangegangene Hoer-Analyse wie aesthetische Betrachtung zugrundeliegen. Zwei Bedeutungen konnten dem Stueck zugeschneben werden: zum einen reflektiert sich in Reak~ die Einwanderergesellschaft der aussereuropaeischen Voelker in der westeuropiaschen Gesellschaft, zum anderen widerspiegelt sich die Aussenseite des Werksystems den Veraendemgsprozess der traditionellen koreanischen Musiktradition. Folglich hat die Klangsprache Yuns ein doppeltes Spannungsverhaeltnis gegenueber der koreanischen wie der westeuropaischen Musiktradition. Der verrnittels der Hauptklangtechruk konstruierende endlose Klangfluss des 「Reak」-Stueckes, dessen eigene Struktur eine Klangflaeche bildet, kontrapunktiert scheinbar die Kollektiv-Emotion der koreanischen Volksgruppe.

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          성악텍스트를 통해 본 한인 이주작곡가 ‘세대’와 그 후경(後景, 그 너머)

          윤신향 이화여자대학교 음악연구소 2018 이화음악논집 Vol.22 No.1

          The main interest of this paper is to illuminate the relationship between the composers who migrated from Korea to Germany and new Korean music. To do this, I examine the vocal texts of representative composers from Korea or immigrant families. In Memory(1974) for three vocalists and percussion instruments, Isang Yun used the syllables of Chinese poem in Korean pronunciation as vocal texts. In ma-am [heart](1991), Younghi Pagh-Paan transformed the traditional Korean poetry genre Sijo to German alphabet system, and used phonems of Kim Ji-Ha's lyric poem as a chorus text for the Hwangto [Yellow Earth] series(1988-1998). The adapting process to the language/text composition of German avant-garde in this way implies the alienation of voice of their mother tongue. In Akrostichon–Word Game(1991), Eun-Suk Chin(1961- ) distorted the words of fairy tale texts or phonetically materialized through the solmization or abstract German alphabet. Especially, in the fourth scene where the vocal part is fused with the instrumental part with the insertion of the whistle, the process of coexistence of the human voice and the instrumental body is recognizable. This process shows by Il-Ryun Chung from the immigrant family differently. He uses both Asian instruments and Western instruments, Korean traditional vocal style and Western traditional vocal style based on Korean traditional rhythm Jangdan in his own way. The parallelity of the original language of traditional Sijo with romanized texts in Birnen Blüten Regen [Pear Blossoms Rain](2009) implies that he presupposed the performers of the two cultures. Finally, a brief overview about the characteristics of the dichotomous generation of composed Korean music is given, and about the relationship between this and work on vocal text of the migrant composers is discussed. In particular, it came to the conclusion that ‘resistance poetry,’ which was the chorus text of Hwangto [Yellow Earth] series of Younghi Pagh-Paan, is compatible with the chorus genre of Geon-Yong Lee, who led the discussion about the national music at the same period. 이 논문의 주요관심은 한국에서 독일로 이주한 작곡가들의 대표적인 성악텍스트를 통해 이들 사이의 관계, 그리고 이들과 한국 창작음악 사이의 관계에 있다. 이를 위해 한국 또는 이주가정 출신 작곡가들의 성악텍스트들을 분석해 보았다. 윤이상(1917-1995)은 세 명의 성악가와 타악기들을 위한《메모리》(1974)에서, 한국식 발음의 중국 한시의 음절들을 성악텍스트로 음역(音譯)했다. 박영희 (1945- )는《마-암》(1991)에서 한국 전통의 시조 장르를 통째로 음역(音譯)하였으며, 합창음악 《황토》 시리즈에서는 김지하 (1941- )의 서정시에서 단어들을 선별, 음성적으로 전환하였다. 진은숙 (1961- )은《단어놀이》(Akrostichon- Wort Spiel, 1993)에서 유럽의 환상동화에 기초한 단어들을 왜곡하거나 알파벳만을 호명하는 방식으로 추상화했다. 특히 성악파트가 휘파람의 삽입과 함께 악기 파트와 융합되는 네 번째 장면에서 인간의 목소리와 악기의 공존과정을 엿볼 수 있었다. 이 과정은 정일련 (1964-)에게서는 전혀 다른 양상으로 나타난다. 장구를 연주하는 그는 한국의 전통장단을 기반으로 동양악기와 서양악기, 한국 전통 성악양식과 서양 전통 성악양식을 모두 활용한다. 매창과 황진이의 전통시조에 기초한 《이화우》(Birnen Blüten Regen, 2009)는 원어를 음역(音譯) 텍스트와 병렬함으로써 두 문화권에서 연주가 가능하게 했다. 마지막으로 한국 ‘세대’라는 개념에 대해 간략히 고찰한 뒤, 창작음악 세대의 이분구조를 살펴보았다. 1980년대 박영희의 음성재료였던 ‘저항시’의 영상이 같은 세대 이건용의 합창장르와 호환관계에 있다는 결론에 이른다.

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          윤이상의 사회참여 작품

          윤신향 민족음악학회 2009 음악과 민족 Vol.0 No.38

          This paper investigates the emigrant composer Isang Yun under his living in exile. Yun’s identity as an exiled composer began with the East Berlin Spy Incident in 1967. The first chapter exposes aspects of Yun’s social engagement after this incident. Particularly Yun uses the poem of the exiled jewish female poet, Nelly Sachs, in his vocal work. Since the mid-1970's, Yun tried to express through the instrumental concerto the relationship between individual and society. Since 1980's he had intensive contact with North Korea, and at the same time he participated in the Korean Democracy Movement. The next two chapters analyze the cantata 「Mein Land, Mein Volk!」(1987) and the 「Engel in Flammen: Memento für Orchester mit Epilog」(1994). The 「Mein Land, Mein Volk!」, which embodies the Yun’s hope for Korean unification, has the following stylistic characters: the 'Sprechstimme' technic is used in the symbolic sentences; the tone 'a' has symbol character as in his other works; in the forth period of this work, Yun uses Korean folk melody and rhythm. The 「Engel in Flammen」, Memento für Orchester mit 「Epilog」, which embodies the Korean Democracy movement, has the following stylistic characters: the work is composed by two third interval class; the dramatic direct technic of orchestra comes out very vividly in scene 3. Yun sets in his last work 「Epilog」 the meaningless syllables, which are similar to the japanese phonetic element. The East Asian tradition and the reality of Korean society, which have persisted in Yun’s consciousness since the East Berlin Incident, are overlapped in his social engagement work. Into the social engagement work, Yun integrates the Korean emigrant society reflecting his ill-fated life in exile. This society is located between South Korea, North Korea, and Western modern society. Particularly 「Mein Land, Mein Volk!」, born on its boundary, narrates the unique modern history of Korea.

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          조형예술의 측면에서 본 윤이상의 주요음(향)작곡

          윤신향 한국음악학학회 2004 음악학 Vol.11 No.-

          This study tries to investigate the relation between maintone(sound)-composition of Isang Yun and formative arts. The first two chapter summerize the music historical primise for the integrative-artistic aesthetic and the process of establishment of Isang Yuns identity as a composer in europe. Therby it is characteristic, that Yun is interested in the relation between music and pictures, while the western composers in the 1950s deal with graphical music and accidental music: the compositional situation tends to weaken the traditional note system, to expand the traditional instrumental medium, and to dismantle the traditional genre. The third chapter describes the relation between the formative image of west side in the acient tomb mural 'Sasindo', which is an about 1500 years old Korean traditional heritage. The line image of this mural is similar with the line image, which Yun draws in the dialog with the japanese composer Nishimura Akira about his maintone(sound)-model. An archetype of this line image is implemented in the beginning of the piece <flute-etu¨de>(1974) in the first section, and it is transformed in the beginning of the fifth section of the same work. Specially amorphous form ending of the maintone(sound)-model displays in this part an expanded form. The expansion of the amorphous form at the end of the maintone-model occurs also three times in <Re´ak>(1966). It is deduced, that this amorphous part form shaws alike in <Images> as a connecting part of the sound-surface. The last two chapter deal with the means of change the Korean traditional format image to modern sound. Yun saw always the picture of the mural in his living room and emphasized the line image of this picture in the explanations of his work, and draw this form in the air in the introduction of play. This phenomen is interpreted under two aspects: at one hand side, the image depicts the taoistic thouhgt, which Yun himself wont to identify with his work. On the other hand side, the connection of Yun's music with a Korean traditional image shaws the fusion aspect of composer. The formative essence of maintone(sound) based on spatial form. The formative mean is created through tile fusion of the line and colorful images. This aura of an image is consistently and endless open. As a result, his maintone(sound) -composition can be interpret as a try to form of an Asian image in the real space 'modern'.

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