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The current study explores the patterns in which English L1, Korean L2 English and English bilingual speakers identify English /sC/ complex onset clusters perceptually in terms of accuracy rates and response times. Additionally, we testify to the predictions which markedness theory, frequency theory, and cue theory make regarding different types of /sC/ clusters: /s+Liquid/, /s+Nasal/, and /s+Stop/. We also investigate how/whether Korean L2 learners’ perceptual patterns differ from those of English bilinguals or native speakers of English. The experimental results showed a novel pattern for Korean L2 listeners such that it does not conform to any predictions by the three theories but partly seems to be consistent with input frequency or cue theory than with markedness based predictions. Also it was found that overall perceptual capacity was lower for Korean learners than for bilinguals or English native speakers, suggesting that English proficiency or input frequency mediates L2 perception. Additionally, it was found that wordhood of the stimuli, homorganicity of /sC/ clusters and individual type of /sC/ cluster affected the identification accuracy and response latencies. Thus, it is suggested that other factors might be sought to account for the variations in the perceptual patterns for complex onsets.
Yun, Gwanhi. 2010. Do Korean Speakers Perceptually Restore Assimilated Words in English? Korean Journal of Linguistics, 35-3, 767-795. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Korean L2 listeners activate L2 speakers' underlying phonemes from the assimilated ones specifically caused by English coronal place assimilation. Recently much of psycholinguistic research has found that L1 listeners activate speakers' intended forms even from the fully assimilated forms (Gaskell and Marslen-Wilson 1996, 1998; Gow 2002, 2003). Such perception studies obtained interesting results that native speakers could recover the underlying coronals from the fully assimilated coronals as well as from the partially assimilated noncoronals. Given the results for L1 speakers, the current study seeks to test the possibility of L2 listeners' recoverability of L1 speaker's intended word forms from the fully assimilated forms. Results from both identification test and ABX discrimination test showed that Korean L2 listeners substantially restored the underlying coronals from the assimilated words as well as noncronals although their recoverability was lower than native English speakers‘. Based on the observation that there are no significant acoustic differences between assimilated and unassimilated noncoronals, these results indicate that L2 listeners might be able to activate the underlying phonemes through phonological inferencing (Gaskell and Marslen-Wilson 1998). Based on the results, we also suggest a novel optimality theoretic account of phonological inferencing via perceptual constraints. (Daegu University)
This study investigates how Korean L2 speakers produce word-final alveolars placed in the word-boundary palatalization environment in English. The purpose of our research is to see whether they show production variation according to lexical factors such as word frequency and wordhood and phonological factors such as word-final alveolar types, number of syllables of the target words, number of word-final codas, etc. Four possible pronunciation variants were identified for word-final alveolars (canonical, palatalization, deletion, and wrong pronunciation). First, the results showed that like previous studies on L1 production, phonological variation was found for Korean L2 speakers. Specifically, canonical variants were predominant, and then the realization of palatalization was also common, whereas mispronounced variants such as deletion and wrong pronunciation were quite rare. Second, word frequency affected the likelihood of palatalization similar to native speakers of English. Palatalization was found more in high-frequency words than in low-frequency words. Third, wordhood affected the likelihood of palatalization. Fourth, production patterns as well as the likelihood of palatalization were affected by word-final alveolar types. Finally, backness of the vowels preceding word-final alveolars affected the occurrences of palatalized variants. That is, word-final alveolars underwent palatalization immediately following front vowels more frequently than back vowels. These findings suggest that production variability is observed even for L2 speakers as well as for L1 speakers. Furthermore, they provide additional support for the claim that frequency may be encoded in word representation of L2 speakers’ mental lexicon. Finally, they revealed that many phonological factors contribute to variability of production of categorical phonological rules by L2 speakers, indicating that listeners might consider lexical and phonological factors to recover speakers’ intended words.
This study investigates whether English-learning Korean speakers’ production is affected by two parameters in organizing mental lexicon such as neighborhood density and word frequency. Speakers produced four types of real English words classified by high- and low- neighborhood density and high- and low-frequency. In order to see these effects, F1s and F2s of vowels, vowel duration and pitch were measured. First, the results showed that F1 and F2 values of vowels in the dense neighborhood words were significantly different from those of sparse neighborhood words as consistent with previous results for native speakers of English. Second, F1s and F2s of vowels in high-frequency words were also different from those in low-frequency words. Put together, these results show that vowel space in the low-frequency words and dense neighborhood words was more expanded than that in the high-frequency and sparse neighborhood words. Furthermore, pitches of vowels in sparse neighborhood words were significantly higher than those in dense neighborhood words. In addition, vowels were produced with longer duration in low-density words and high-frequency words than in high-density words and low-frequency words. However, vowel pitch did not significantly differ by word frequency but by neighborhood density. Overall, our findings suggest that lexical factors like neighborhood density and word frequency influence the phonetic-fine details and those two factors serve the function of parameters associated with the organization of L2 speakers’ mental lexicon as well as of L1 speakers’.
The current study investigates how Korean L2 listeners identify English minimal pairs contrasting in voicing and manner and attempts to testify the essential tenets of the Perceptual Assimilation Model. Another purpose of our research is to explore other factors which might affect the identification patterns within the identical contrast categories proposed by PAM. Identification tasks were performed with target vowel and consonant contrasts within real word and nonce word conditions. Identification accuracy and reaction time were measured to evaluate the relative difficulty of L2 sound identification. First, we found that Korean listeners encountered the most difficulty in identifying L2 English minimal pairs in the Single Category contrast, followed by those in the Category Goodness contrast, and those in the TC contrast were most accurately and rapidly identified in accordance with the predictions of the PAM model. Next, it was shown that there were varying levels of difficulty in identification tasks within the TC and SC contrast. This finding suggests that PAM is not sufficient to predict L2 identification accuracy and other factors should be taken into consideration, including the Speech Learning Model, and other phonological factors such as manner of articulation, the vocalicity of the segments, individual contrast type, etc.
The present study investigated whether Korean speakers know morphological restrictions on the possible combination of a base and an affix in English and Korean according to the origins of bases and affixes. Lexical decision tasks were performed to examine the processing of derivational affixed words by measuring accuracy and response times. First, results showed that accuracy was higher and response time was faster for Latinate affixed derivational words than for Germanic derivational words in English. Second, affixed words with a Germanic base were processed more accurately and faster than those formed on a Latinate base. Finally, Korean speakers processed both words formed on native Korean affixes and words derived on Sino-Korean affixes with equally higher accuracy and rapidity. These findings suggest that the origin of bases or affixes might be a crucial parameter to organize the mental lexicon in L2 as well as L1, providing additional support for the tenet of lexical morphology. Second, it is indicated that affixed derivation words are processed via dual-route mechanism, evidenced by the significant effects of the origin of a base or an affix and the frequency of base words.
This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the influences of phonological rules or constraints on intergestural timing relations realized as the degree of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation in English. First, both ultrasound imaging and acoustic results showed that palatalization rules enhanced the degree of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation compared with the case of nonpalatalized forms. Second, we obtained the result that postlexical palatalization rules in English contributed to a greater degree of coarticulation than lexical palatalization rules. These results provide an interesting implication that the on-line application of phonological rules and the lexical status of phonological rules directly affect the low-level phonetic fine details such as intergestural timing relations. On the basis of these results, I adopt a unified model of phonology and phonetics, formally accounting for these results through feature-and-gesture based OT frameworks. Further, my analysis shows that intergestural timing relations can be formally incorporated in phonology grammar.
This study investigated the family size effect on English word processing via visual lexical decision task with three different groups of speakers, i.e., L1 English speakers, Korean L2 English learners, and English bilinguals. For English simple nouns, verbs, and adjectives, we examined the effects of the type count of morphologically related members and the surface base-frequency on lexical processing. First, results showed that the family size effect emerged in Korean L2 learners, but it was mostly inhibitory. To be specific, words with a large family size elicited slower response latencies than those with a small family size. However, the facilitatory effect arose for bilinguals and native speakers of English. Second, it was exhibited that high-frequency base words were recognized more quickly than low-frequency counterparts, confirming that token frequency as well as type frequency codetermines their recognition latency. These findings suggest that L1, bilinguals, and L2 learners' mental lexicons are organized by morphologically related words along with surface frequency although their effect size differs depending on the amount of language exposure. Finally, building on the results in the current experimental study, we propose a formal account for the processing advantages of words with a large family size under a psycholinguistic model and processing constraints.
In many Semitic languages, the first consonant in geminates underwent diachronic changes into a sonorant, i.e. /n, r,l, m, w, y/. This paper shows that syllable contact hierarchy positively motivates such dissimilation along with No Gemination, while Rose's (2000) OCP indirectly functions to cause dissimilation and prevent epenthesis in diachronic Semitic dissimilation. Furthermore, it exhibits that two types of sonority sequencing principles, i.e., Syllable Contact Hierarchy and Sonority Dispersion Principle conspire to produce less marked sonority sequence between nucleus and coda and between the coda and onset across syllables. This conspiracy is functionally rooted in perceptual highlighting of the syllable break in speech perception by maximizing the sonority distance between syllables and it is related to the effort to make perceptually more salient syllable peaks than margins. Diachronic dissimilation in Semitic also shows that unlike assimilation but like neutralization, dissimilation involves changing marked sequence into unmarked one in terms of sonority.
This paper deals with asymmetry of faithfulness between the edges of prosodic/morphological units and their rest parts. I argue that the notion of positional faithfulness is more relevant to handle such asymmetry observed in various languages rather than positional markedness. Data shows that prosodic units such as segments, moras, and foot can be targets for faithfulness to the input at either at the left or at right edges of morphological domains such as morphemes and words as well as of prosodic domains such as prosodic words, accentual phrases and phonological phrases. The presence of both marked and unmarked structures positioned at edges supports extended positional faithfulness. Further, the proposed analysis formally confirms Panini's Theorem in Optimality Theory by appealing to position-specific constraints ranked above general faithfulness constraints. It also provides a possible way to establish a universally-fixed positional faithfulness constraint ranking through further research.