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The salivary gland undergoes complex process of growth and differentiation of the branching morphogenesis of ductal system during the prenatal and early postnatal periods which are regulated by various elements in the extracellular matrix. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a cell adhesion molecule. In the present study, localization and expression of EMMPRIN in development and effects of chorda-lingual denervation and cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment on the EMMPRIN expression were investigated. Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to determine expression level. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EMMPRIN was localized specifically in the cytoplasm of ductal cells, not acini of the submandibular gland all the postnatal periods. At prenatal day 18, when the formation of ducts was not definite, no immunoreactivity was observed. Both Western blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed that EMMPRIN expression was maintained up to postnatal day 7, decreased after postnatal day 10. The EMMPRIN expression was upregulated by the surgical denervation of the chorda-lingual nerve in the gland as well as by the CsA treatment. The present study suggests that EMMPRIN is a crucial molecule for maintaining physiological functions of the salivary gland.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow and other somatic tissues reside in an environment with relative low oxygen tension. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can mimic hypoxic conditions through transcriptional changes of some genes including hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study evaluated the potential role of CoCl2 preconditioning on multi-lineage differentiation of C3H/10T1/2, a murine MSC line to understand its possible molecular mechanisms in vitro. CoCl2 treatment of MSCs markedly increased HIF-1a and VEGF mRNA, and protein expression of HIF-1a. Temporary preconditioning of MSCs with CoCl2 induced up-regulation of osteogenic markers including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen during osteogenic differentiation, followed by enhanced mineralization. CoCl2 also increased chondrogenic markers including aggrecan, sox9, and type II collagen, and promoted chondrocyte differentiation. CoCl2 suppressed the expression of adipogenic markers including PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPa, and inhibited adipogenesis. Temporary preconditioning with CoCl2 could affect the multi-lineage differentiation of MSCs.
Odontogenic cells express many genes spatiotemporally through complex and intricate processes during tooth formation. Therefore, investigating them during the tooth development has been an important subject for the better understanding of tooth morphogenesis. The present study was performed to identify the genetic profiles which are involved in the morphological changes during the different stages of rat tooth development using the Agilent Rat Oligonucleotide Microarrays. Morphologically, the maxillary 3rd molar germ at 10 days post-partum (dpp) was at the cap/bell stage. In contrast, the maxillary 2nd molar germ showed the root development stage. After microarray analysis, there were a considerable number of up- or down-regulated genes in the 3rd and the 2nd molar germ cells during tooth morphogenesis. Several differentially expressed genes for nerve supply were further studied. Among them, neuroligin 1 (Nlgn 1) was gradually downregulated during tooth development both at the transcription and the translation level. Also, Nlgn 1 was mostly localized in the dental sac, which is an important component yielding the nerve supply. This genetic profiling study proposed that many genes may be implicated in the biological processes for the dental hard tissue formation and, furthermore, may allow the identification of the key genes involved in the nerve supply to the dental sac.