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This study reviewed the outbreak and prevalence of cattle plague around Byeongjahoran from the perspective of international war in East Asia. First of all, the epidemiological characteristics of cattle plague in Manchuria where the outbreak of cattle plague was first reported around Byeongjahoran were analyzed. From the study, it was found the military activities that Sarhu (Qing) had made during the growth into Empire promoted the exchanges of various germs which became naturalized in the regions in Northeast Asia, and that such extreme situation as war made various diseases taken place and dispersed. In particular, because of military activities of Sarhu (Qing), various contagious diseases including smallpox which was prevalent in Inner-Mongolia and Shanxi became prevalent in Manchuria. During the contacts with Chosun after Jeongmyohoran, pathogen occurring Rinderpest was introduced into Manchuria. Favorable conditions for the interactions with various pathogens were provided by frequent contacts with wild animals through hunting and various cultivation groups composed of Manchurians, Mongolians, Han-Chinese and Chosun people. Rinderpest breaking in Chosun around Byeongjahoran was originated in Shenyang in 1636. It was transmitted to cattle in the Korean Peninsula and expanded to Kansai Region. At that time Rinderpest occurred and rapidly expanded in a specific area due to the interactions of pathogens, hosts and environments, and suddenly disappeared because of the extinction and the separation of hosts. It is consistent with the symptoms of modern times ‘Rinderpest.’ In Chosun it occurred in Pyeongan-do 4 months before the outbreak of Byeongjahoran and gave great damage on the capital area and northern Gyeonggi region. Because of the large scale migration of militaries after Byeongjahoran, Rindpest was expanded to Hasamdo and was terminated in February to April leaving big damages. The damages of Byeongjahoran were very severe. From the statistical records, it was found that the mortality rate in Gyenggi-do was around 2/3, around 50% in Jeju area. The mortality rate of infected cattle was around 75%. In some records based on individual cases, 80-100% of mortality rate was addressed. It is comparable to 25% of mortality in 1627, and is near or less than the mortality rate of Rinderpest in the 19th and 20the century. When analyzing the expansion of Rinderpest from the perspective of place, the most damaged places were areas near the busy roads or the places with dense population. Therefore, the remote places far from busy roads or separated from the affected places right after the outbreak did not have much damage. Additionally, rich stock-feeders (豪民) had relatively small damages and poor households (小民) with 1 or 2 stokes were badly affected. The prevention and supply of medication by government made considerably positive effects on the prevention and treatment of Finderpest.
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돼지 흉막폐렴은 임상증상에 따라서 다양한 질병의 경과와 높은 이환율 및 폐사율을 나타내는 돼지 주요한 전염성 호흡기 질병으로 전세계적으로 양돈업에 막대한 경제적인 피해를 주고 있다. 그러므로, 이 질병을 예방 및 근절을 위하여 다양한 노력이 시도되었으며, 이중 vaccine의 개발이 가장 활발 진행되어, 균체를 이용한 방법으로부터 시작하여 다양하게 개발되어 왔다. 특히, 이 질병은 원인체인 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 혈청형 및 지역에 따라서 병원성에 많은 차이를 나타냄으로, 이 질병 예방을 위해 개발된 예방약의 전반적인 적용에 앞서서 새로운 지역적인 특성에서의 효능성에 대하여 사전실험이 요구되어왔다. 이에, 최근 개발되어 유럽 등에서 사용되고 있는 vaccine 중, A. pleuropneumoniae의 주요한 병원성인자인 ApxⅠ, ApxⅡ, ApxⅢ 및 42kDa 크기의 세포외막 단백질 (OMP)로 구성되어 있는 subunit vaccine을 국내에서 사용하기 전에, 국내 야외 농장에서의 안전성, 면역원성 및 야외 질병방어효능을 조사하였다. 안전성에서 기존량의 2배량을 접종하고 국소 또는 전신반응의 발생 유무를 관찰한 결과 어떠한 접종 반응도 나타내지 않았으며, ELISA 법을 이용하여 각각에 대한 항체가를 측정한 결과 접종후부터 각각에 대한 항체가의 상승이 확인되었으며, 접종 7주후에 ApxⅠ 및 ApxⅢ에 대한 항체가가 접종군과 대조군 사이에 뚜렷한 차이를 나타내었다(P<0.05). 또한 질병 발생율에서 백신군이 대조군에 비하여 뚜렷한 감소를 보였다. 이상의 결과를 바탕으로 볼 때에 이 subunit vaccine은 야외에서 안전성, 면역원성 및 질병 방어 효과가 인정됨으로 국내에서 돼지 흉막폐렴의 예방 및 근절에 많은 도움을 줄 것으로 사료된다.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), first recognized in the early 1980s, causes a significant health problem around the world with large outbreaks of acute hepatitis. HEV is a non-enveloped, single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus of approximately 7.2kb in length. HEV is classified in the family of Hepeviridae consisting of at least 4 mammalian genotypes and one avian genotype. There are four major genotypes of HEV that are recognized in the genus Hepevirus: genotype 1 (Burmese-like Asian strains), genotype 2(a Mexican strain and various African strains), genotype 3 (human strains from sporadic cases in industrialized countries, and animal strains from pigs, deer, and mongeese), and genotype 4 (Asian strains from sporadic cases, and swine strains in both developing and industrialized countries). Genotypes 1 and 2are infected in humans with large waterborne epidemics in developing countries with poor sanitation conditions, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 found both human and other animals with sporadic cases in both developing and developed countries. Especially, genotypes 3 and 4 HEV often show similar nucleotide identity between human and animal isolates, suggesting zoonotic infection. The mortality of HEV is generally low (1%) but is up to 25% in pregnant women. Moreover, the sporadic cases of HEV occasionally progress to chronic hepatitis causing liver cirrhosis in immunosuppressive patients. Recently, evidence is emerging for the occurrence of zoonotic infection in non-endemic areas, and chronic HEV is increasing in transplant recipients in industrialized countries. In addition, the number of animal species infected with HEV is increasing, and now includes pigs, chickens, and several wild species. Also, there are several evidences indicating zoonotic transmission in genotypes 3 and 4, thus particular attention on development of diagnostic methods and vaccine should be paid to prevent HEV infection. Swine HEV infection is widespread throughout the pig industry in both developing and industrialized countries. The infection rate in pigs generally the highest at 2-3 months of age, although seroprevalence appears to increase with age. The swine HEV is transmitted through fecal-oral contamination, as with human HEV, and feces containing large amounts of the viruses are the main source of transmission. The first report on swine HEV in 2003 indicated that the detection of swine HEV RNA-positive pigs and anti-HEV IgG-positive pigs were 2.3% and 14.8%, respectively. After the report, the prevalence was increasing by the year. At present, the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 39.5% and 80% in individual pigs and herd level prevalence, respectively. Also, anti-HEV antibody was detected in cats and zoo animals. Clinical signs of swine HEV-infected pigs, the infection are ubiquitous, as it exists in essentially all swine-producing regions worldwide. Pigs naturally infected with swine HEV are asymptomatic. In a prospective study of naturally infected piglets in the USA, gross pathogological lesions were not detected in pigs during early stage of swine HEV infection, although the piglets had microscopic evidence of hepatitis characterized by mild to moderate multifocal and periprotal lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis with mild focal hepatocellular necrosis. Similar observation was reported in the pigs experimentally infected with a genotype 3 strain of human HEV. HEV is encoded by 3 open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome. The ORF1 encodes nonstructural proteins including methyltransferases, papain-like cysteine proteases, helicase andRNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The ORF2and ORF3 encode highly immunogenic capsid proteins and cytoskeleton-associated phosphoprotein, respectively. The clinical symptoms of human hepatitis E could not be distinguished from other types of acute viral hepatitis, and thus accurate diagnosis of hepatitis E must rely on laboratory testing. HEV is a difficult virus to work with, as it cannot be efficiently propagated in cell cultures. Currently, the diagnosis of HEV infection is primarily based on PCR and ELISA. Therefore, a lot of RT PCR and ELISA methods were developed, but none has been approved by any international regulatory agency due to the absence of appropriate gold standards. The vaccine based on capsid protein showed good efficacy, but there is still limitations to prevent emerging zoonotic strains of HEV. Therefore, the study of accurate and well-validated diagnostic tests and development of vaccines against the animal strains for HEV may minimize the risks of zoonotic transmission. HEV is an important but still extremely understudied zoonotic pathogen. The evidences of interspecies infection between swine and human and recovery of viruses resembling swine HEV from human patients with acute hepatitis E raise a serious concern for zoonotic HEV infection. The recent discovery of avian HEV and other anti-HEV antibody positive animals suggest that there likely exist other animal reservoirs for HEV in addition to pigs. Therefore, HEV poses a potential public health risk for zoonosis and food safety. Also, development of an affordable vaccine against HEV will be needed by further research.
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Swine respiratory diseases induce severe conomicloses in the swine industry worldwide. Severalmethods have ben developed and applied to controlthese diseases. However, there are stil problems ofdisease control in the swine industry. Recently, egyolk antibodies have ben found to offer several ad-vantages for disease control in animals and humans.In a previous tudy (24), antibodies to severaldeveloped. However, several problems remained,especialy in terms of reduced laying rates. Therefore,experimental vacines were reformulated with variousbacterial antigens of the swine respiratory diseases.After imunizing hens with the antigens, antibodyprofiles and other effects including laying rates wereinvestigated and compared to those of the previousstudy.Profiles of antibody titers were very similar withthose of the previous study. However, side fects,such as depression, weakness, reduction of layinglaying rates were increased in hens injected withcertain experimental vacines. In particular, layingrates of hens injected with vaccines against atrophicrhinitis were increased up to 84% by injecting avaccine composed of only the DNTs of B. bron-chiseptica and P. multocida D:4. Efficacies of thevaccines against swine pneumonic pasteurelosis andpleuropneumonia were very similar with those of theprevious study. These results uggest hat newvacines could be fective in the production of egyolk antibodies against the causative agents of swine*Adress: Department of Infectious Disease, Colege of VeterinaryMedicine and School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul NationalUniversity, Suwon, 441-744 KoreaTel: +82-31-290-2737, Fax: +82-31-290-2737E.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org diseases.Key words ; IgY, Swine, Respiratory Diseases.
This study was carried out to investigate and analyze the gross lesions of lungs in slaughtered pigs. Pigs were collected from the areas of Kyounggi, Chungbuk, Chungnam and Kangwon provinces from November to December 1999. One hundred-eleven pigs(17.4%) had lung lesions with various degrees among 639 pigs tested. By the standard scoring system, mean score of the lung lesion was 25.6+13.2. Regional prevalence of lung lesions were 23.5%(8/34) in Kangwon, 17.3%(61/352) in Kyunggi, 15.7%(32/204) in Chungnam and 20.4%(10/49) in Chungbuk. Mean number of pulmonary lesions per pig were 2.87. Most frequent region with pulmonary lesions was right cranial lobe(30.1%) and the decreasing prevalence rates were followed by 23.8% in right middle lobe, 21.05 in right accessory lobe, 15.0% in left cranial lobe, and 5.0% in left middle and accessory lobe(5.0%) and also there was the same prevalent tendency on pulmonary lesions in each lobes of 111 pigs with gross lesion. Isolation rate of bacteria from the affected lungs was 72.1 % and main pathogen was Pasteurella multocida. Gross and histological examination of pulmonary lesions in some pigs suggested that there were no marked changes regarded as the correlation with specific diseases except fibropurulent bronchopneumonia which was suspective of some respiratory bacteria including Pasteurella multocida and peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplasia in varying degrees which was strongly associated with mycoplasmal infection. Consequently, the results in the study were suggested that there was consistently exposed against many causative factors including bacteria in the considerable number of pig herds rearing in the middle area in Korea.