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        • KCI등재

          활성효모 첨가가 산란계의 생산성에 미치는 영향

          유종석,백인기 한국가금학회 1990 韓國家禽學會誌 Vol.17 No.3

          In order to study the effects of supplementation of live yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the performance of laying hens, five experiments were conducted. Two experiment were conducted during summer period, one with 37 wk old Dekalb-Delta strain laying birds(Exp. 1) and the other one with 100 wk old molted Nick Chick Brown laying birds(Esp.2) . In each experiment, 240 birds were divided into 12 groups of 20 birds each and randomly distributed. Each of the two experimental diets(Control 71 and 0.05% live yeast supplemented 72) was fed to 6 groups for 4 wks in Exp.1 and 3 wks in Exp.2. Three experiments were conducted during winter period, Exp.2 with 54 wk old Hy-Line strain laying birds, Exp.4 with 52 wk old Hy-Line strain laying birds, and Exp.5 with 36 wk old broiler breeder(Indian River strain). In each experiment, 540 birds were divided into 18 groups of 30 birds each and randomly distributed. Each of the 3 experimental diets(Control:$T_1$0.05% live yeast supplemented:$T_2$ and 0.1% live yeast supplemented : T$_3$) was fed to 9 groups for 6 wks in Exp.3, 9 wks in Exp.4 and 4 wks in Exp.5. In Exp.4, Latin Square design was employed to determine the effects of switching feeds at 3 wk intervals. All hens were housed in cages of commercial farm and experimental diets were made with commercial layer feeds. In Experiment 1, egg production was significantly(P<0.05) higher in $T_2$. Feed intake was significantly (P<higher in 72 at 1st wk but 4 wk average was not significantly different. Feed efficiency was significantly(P<0.01) better in 72 at End wk but 4 wk average was not significantly different. Other parameters, such as weight, soft egg production, cracked egg production and mortality were not significantly different. In Experiment 2, egg production was significantly(P<0.05) higher in $T_2$. Feed efficiency was significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01) better at End wk and 3rd wk but 3 wk average was not significantly different. Soft egg production was significantly(P<0.05) higher in 72. Other parameters were not significantly different. In Experiment 3, egg productions were significantly(P<0.05) different among treatments : $T_3$ was higher than $T_1$ and $T_2$ was higher than $T_1$. Egg weight of $T_1$ and $T_2$was significantly(P<0.05) heavier than $T_3$. Feed intake of $T_2$ and $T_3$ was significantly(P<0.05) higher than $T_1$ at 6th wk but overall average was not significantly different. Soft egg production were significantly(P<0.01) different among treatments:$T_1$ was higher than $T_3$ was higher than $T_2$. Feed efficiency cracked e99 Production and mortality were not signifcantly different. In Experiment 4, egg production tended to increase as the level of live yeast supplementation increased but they were not statistically different. In Experiment 5, egg production of broiler breeders of $T_3$ was significantly(P<0.01) higher than $T_1$. Feed intake of $T_3$ was significantly(P<0.05) greater than $T_1$ and $T_2$ at 3rd wk but overall average was not significantly different. Fertility and hatchability tended to be higher in the supplemented groups than in the control. 활성효모의 첨가가 산란계에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위하여 5개의 시험을 실시하였다. 시험 1과 2는 하절기에 실시하였는데 시험 1에서는 37주령의 Dekalb-Delta 산란계, 시험 2에서는 100주령의 환우계 Nick-Chick Brown 산란계를 공시하였다. 각 시험에 있어서 240수를 2처리 6반복으로 반복당 20수씩 완전임의 배치하였다. 시험사요는 대조구($T_1$)와 괄기효모 첨가수준이 0.05%인 첨가구($T_2$)로 하여 시험 1은 4주간, 시험 2는 3주간에 걸쳐서 실시하였다. 3개의 시험은 동절기에 실시하였는데 시험 3과 4는 각각 54영 및 52주령의 Hy-Line산란계, 시험 5는 36주령의 육용종계를 공시하였다. 시험은 각각 540수를 3처리 6반복으로 반복당 30수적 완전임의 배치하였다. 시험사료는 대조구($T_1$), 활성순모 0.05% 첨가구($T_2$) 및 0. 1 % 첨가구($T_3$)로 하여 시험 3과 4는 6주간 및 9주간 그리고 시험 5는 4주간에 걸쳐서 실시하였다. 시험 4는 시험사료를 3주마다 회전시켰을 때의 효과를 알아보기 위해 라틴 방각으로 배치하였다. 시험계는 일반농가에서 사육되었으며, 시험사료는 일반시중사료를 사용하였다. 시험 1에서 산란율은$T_2$가 높았으며(P<0.05), 4주간의 평균에서는 유의차가 없었다. 사료효율은 2주에서 고도의 유의차가 있었지만(P<0.01), 4주간의 평균에서는 유의차가 없었다. 난중과 연ㆍ파난율 및 사망율에서는 유의차가 없었다. 시험 2에서 산란율은 $T_2$가 높았으며(P<0.05), 사요악률은 2주와 3주에서 $T_2$가 유의하게(P<0.05, P<0.01)좋았으나 3주간의 평균에서는 유의차가 없었다. 연난발생률은 $T_2$가 높았지만(P<0.05) 1외 다른 조사항목에서는 유의차가 없었다. 시험 3에서 산란율은 처리간에 유의차가 있었고(P<0.05), $T_3$는 $T_2$보다 그리고 $T_2$는 $T_1$보다 높았다. $T_1$과 $T_2$의 난중은 $T_3$보다 무거웠고(P<0.05), $T_2$와 의 사료섭취양은$T_1$에 비해 6주에서 높았지만 (P<0.05), 전 기간 평균에서는 유의차가 없었다. 연난발생율은 처리간에 고도의 유의차가 있었으며(P<0.01). $T_1$은 $T_3$보다 높았고, $T_3$는 $T_2$보다 높았다. 사료효율, 연난발생률. 사망율에서는 유의차가 없었다. 시험 4에서 산란율은 활성효모 첨가수준을 증가시킬수록 증가하는 경향이 있었지만 통계적인 유의차는 없었다. 그외 다른 조사항목에서도 유의차는 없었다. 시험 5에서 육용종계의 산란율은 $T_3$가 $T_1$보다 유의하게 높았다(P<0.01). 사료섭취양은 3주에서는 $T_3$과 $T_1$ $T_2$보다 높았지만(P<0.05) 전 기간 평균에서는 유의차가 없었다. 수정률 및 부화율은 대조구보다 첨가구가 높은 경향이 있었다

        • 옥시칼본계 화합물의 포오틀랜드 시멘트 광물에 대한 흡착거동

          김창은,최진호,유종석 연세대학교 산업기술연구소 1983 논문집 Vol.15 No.2

          The rheological properties of the cement mineral-sodium gluconate-water system were investigated by determining the adsorbed amount of sodium gluconate, the sedimentation velocity of cement particles, and viscosity of the cement paste. IR and SEM were used to analyze the adsorbed phase on cement minerals. The results of experiment were as follow: 1. In the case of containing gypsum, the adsorbed amount of sodium gluconate on OPC could be calculated from the sum of that on each mineral component. 2. In general, the fluidity of the cement paste was increased with the equilibrium concentration. 3. There were maximum values of the amount adsorbed and viscosity at equilibrium concentration of 0.3% for C₃A in the solution system. 4. The adsorbed phase of sodium gluconate on C₃A could be identified by the IR analysis with the wavelength region of 3200??(-OH), 2800??(C-H), and 1600??( ?? ) 5. As shown in microstructure analysis with SEM, the layered type structure of hydrated C₃A could incorporate with polar compound or ionic species to form a interlamella complex. Due to the large surface area of layed structure of C₃AHx, the extraordinary high amount of gluconate anion adsorbed C₃A matrix could be well explained also comparing with hydrated C₃S.

        • 2LF-4 : Methane oxidation on metallic surfaces including Pd(111)

          유종석 한국공업화학회 2019 한국공업화학회 연구논문 초록집 Vol.2019 No.0

          DFT and microkinetic modeling are used to study CH<sub>4</sub> oxidation on Pd(111) under mildly oxidizing conditions. Although our energetic analysis indicates that metallic sites are more active than O<sup>*</sup> and OH<sup>*</sup> sites for C-H bond activation, our microkinetic analysis indicates that metallic sites produce mostly CO, whereas O<sup>*</sup> sites produce mostly CH<sub>2</sub>O. However, the product selectivity can change greatly depending on product pressures. Increasing product pressures leads to the promotion of CO<sub>2</sub> production, because CO oxidation is much more active than CH<sub>4</sub> oxidation. We then extend the study to other FCC(111) surfaces by incorporating the scaling relations in the microkinetic model. We find that most transition-metal surfaces cannot effectively activate CH<sub>4</sub> under the reaction conditions employed. Finally, CH<sub>4</sub> oxidation kineitcs is described as functions of two descriptors, enabling identification of promising catalyst surfaces for selective production of the desired product.

        • 2LE-3 : Rational design of single-atom electro-catalysts for H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> production

          유종석,성영은,현택환 한국공업화학회 2020 한국공업화학회 연구논문 초록집 Vol.2020 No.-

          The electrochemical route to produce H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> via the oxygen reduction reaction is highly desirable as it can allow on-site productions of the chemical under ambient conditions. However, the efficiency of this process depends greatly on the availability of the cost-effective catalysts with high activity, selectivity, and stability. In this study, periodic density functional theory calculations are employed to identify the most ideal structure of the single-atom catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of O<sub>2</sub> to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, which is then synthesized and tested experimentally to result in the record-high activity of 2.8 mA/cm2 at 0.65 V vs RHE with high selectivity.

        • KCI등재

          활성효모 및 효모배양물의 첨가가 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향 -육계에 있어서 효모제품의 첨가효과-

          유종석,남궁환,백인기 한국가금학회 1991 韓國家禽學會誌 Vol.18 No.3

          효모(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)제품의 첨가가 육계의 생산성에 미치는 영향을 알아보기 위하여 Arbor Acres종으로 2차에 걸친 사양시험을 실시하였다. 실험 1은 육계 숫 병아리 200수를 무첨가 대조구, yeast culture 0.25%구(YC-0.25%) 및 2.5%구(YC-2.5%), 활성효모 0.05%구(LY-0.05%) 및 0.1%구(LY-0.1%)의 5처리에 4반복으로 반복당 10수씩 battery에 완전임의배치하여 6주간의 사양시험을 실시하였다. 실험 2는 육계 감별추 암, 수 각 120수씩을 성별로 무첨가대조구, 후기(4~6주)에만 0.1% 활성효모첨가구 그리고 전기간 0.1% 활성효모첨가구를 2$\times$3 요인 배치하고 각 처리당 4반복, 반복당 10수씩 공시하여 7주간 사양하였다 실험 1의 결과는 증체율과 사료섭취량 및 폐사율에 있어서 처리간에 유의한 차이가 없었으나 YC-0.25%와 LY-0.1%가 대조구나 타처리구에 비해 3주 이후부터 증체율이 높아지는 경향이 있었다. 사료효율은 LY-0.05%가 대조구, YC-0.25% 및 LY-0 1%에 비해 유의하게 낮았다. 영양소 이용율은 처러간에 유의한 차이가 없었으나 Ca 및 P의 이용율은 첨가구들이 대조구에 비하여 높은 경향을 보여주었다. 소장내의 미생물총균은 Lactobacilli spp., Streptococcus spp. 그리고 yeast 수는 첨가구들에서 높고 Coliforms세균수는 대조구에서 높은 경향을 보였다. 실험 2의 결과는 사료, 성별, 사료$\times$성별 상호작용이 증체량에 모두 유의한 영향을 미쳤는데 특히 숫 육계에서는 활성효모를 전기간 첨가한 구가 증체량이 가장 높은 반면 암 육계에서는 후기만 첨가한 구가 가장 높았다 사료섭취량과 폐사율은 숫 육계가 유의하게 높았으며 사료효율은 사료$\times$성별 상호작용이 유의하여 숫 육계에서는 활성효모 전기간 첨가구가 그리고 암 육계에서는 후기만 첨가한 구가 가장 높았다. 영양소 이용율에 있어서 숫 육계는 암 육계보다 건물, Ca및 P의 이용율이 유의하게 높았고 활성효모 첨가구들은 Ca및 P의 이용율이 대조구에 비하여 유의하게 높았다. 근위, 소장 상, 하부 및 맹장의 세균수를 조사한 결과 Lactobacillus spp.와 yeast는 소장 상, 하부 그리고 Streptococcus spp는 소장과 맹장에서 활성효모첨가구가 대조구에 비하여 높은 경향이 있었으며 Coliforms 세균수는 소장 상, 하부에서 대조구가 첨가구보다 높은 경향이 있었다. 또한 소장의 pH는 활성효모첨가구들이 대조구에 비하여 높은 경향이 있었다. In order to study the effects of dietary yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) products on the performance of broiler chickens, tow feeding trial using Arbor Acres strain were conducted. In experiment 1, 200 hatched male broiler chickens were divided into groups of 10 birds each and four groups were given each of the five dietary treatments : control, 0.25% yeast culture supplemented (YC-0.25%), 2.5% yeast culture supplemented(YC-2.5%), 0.05% live yeast supplemented(LY-0.05%) and 0.1% live yeast supplemented(LY-0.1%) . In experiment 2, 240 hatched broiler chickens(120 birds in each sex) were assigned to 2$\times$3(sex$\times$feed) factorial design Dietary treatments were control, 0.1% live yeast supplementation in finisher diet(LY-Finisher) , and 0.1% live yeast supplementation in whole period (LY-Whole). Results of experiment 1 showed that weight gain, feed intake and mortality were not significantly different among treatments. However, weight .gain of YC-0.25% and LY-0.1% tended to be greater than other treatments after 3wks of age Feed efficiency of LY-0.05% was poorer than those of control, YC-0.25% and LY-0.1% . Although nutrients availabilities were not significantly different among treatments, availiabilities of Ca and P were greater in yeast products supplemented groups than in control group. The number of Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp . and yeast in small intestine tended to be greater in supplemented groups while that of Coliforms bacteria tended to be greafter in control group. In experiment 2, there were significant effects of factors (feed and sex) and interaction on growth rate. LY-Whole groups showed best weight gain in male while LY-Finisher groups did best in female broiler chickens. Feed intake and mortality were significantly higher in male broiler chickens. Feed$\times$sex interaction had a significant effect on feed efficiency. LY-Whole groups showed best feed efficiency in male while LY-Finisher did best in female broiler chickens. Availabilities of dry matter, Ca and P were higher in male than in female broiler chickens. Availabilities of Ca and P were higher in live yeast supplemented groups than in control groups. Live yeast supplemented groups tended to have greater number of Lactobacillus spp . and yeast in the small intestine and Stre))tococcu spp. in the small intestine and cecum, and lesser number of Coliforms bacteria in the small intestine The pH of small intestinal contents tended to be higher in live yeast supplemented groups.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          명반 및 수산화 알루미늄을 이용한 ${\alpha}$-Al$_2$O$_3$의 합성 (I) 규산 알루미늄광으로부터 순수한 ${\alpha}$-Al$_2$O$_3$ 추출을 위한 용해도 모델 계산 및 실험적 검증

          유종석,최진호,한규승,한양수,이창교,이낭호,Yoo,Jong-Seok,Choy,Jin-Ho,Han,Kyoo-Seung,Han,Yang-Su,Lee,Chang-Kyo,Lee,Nang-Ho 대한화학회 1991 대한화학회지 Vol.35 No.4

          천연규산 알루미늄광인 힐로이사이트 광물로부터 고순도 ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$를 합성하기 위해 황산용액을 사용한 습식합성법을 이용하였다. 추출된 황산 알루미늄 용액내에 존재하는 각종 불순물을 제거하기 위해 각 금속이온의 수산화물과 탄산화물의 형성을 고려, pH에 따른 용해도곡선을 도시하였다. 이를 기초로 ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$의 전구물질인 순수한 암모니움 명반은 pH = 1.5∼2.5에서, 수산화 알루미늄은 pH = 6∼8에서 각각 합성하였으며, 이로부터 얻어진 ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$의 순도는99.7${\%}$와 99.0${\%}$였다. 여기서 불순물에 대한 정제효과는 암모니움 명반으로부터 합성된 경우(Na = 0.047${\%}$, Si = 0.092${\%}$)가 수산화 알루미늄으로부터 합성된 경우Na = 0.29${\%}$, Si = 0.12${\%}$)보다 매우 높은 결과를 보였다. High-purity alumina powder was prepared by extracting the natural alumino-silicate mineral (halloysite) in H$_2$SO$_4$ solution. For the selective precipitation of alum and aluminum hydroxide, the solubility diagram was prior calculated by also considering the formation of hydroxides and carbonates for all the metal ions in an aqueous solution, which allow us to control the contamination of impurities envolved in the natural minerals. Ammonium aluminum sulfate (alum) and alumium hydroxide could be successfully prepared at pH = 1.5∼2.5 and pH = 6∼8, respectively according to our solubility diagrams. The purity of alum-and hydroxide-derived ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ was determined to be 99.7${\%}$ and 99.0${\%}$, respectively, which indicates the former route would be more desirable for the large scale application. It is also worthy to note that the impurities like Na and Si were strongly reduced in the former (Na = 0.05${\%}$, Si = 0.09${\%}$) compared to the latter (Na = 0.29${\%}$, Si = 0.12${\%}$).

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