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After a thorough examination and study of all materials made public between 1970 and 1980, the characteristics of employed women in Korea are summarized as follows. 1. The number of women participating in economic activities is constantly increasing, boosting their participation rate accordingly, and the distribution ratio of women in the population engaged in economic activities is gradually rising. In the geographical distribution, the ratio of women participating in economic activities in Myeon-districts, which are mainly farming areas, is higher than in City area and Eup-districts. This trend is mainly caused by the nation's industrialization drive in the past two decades in which many workers in the rural area used to move into the city areas and women have been forced to work in farms in place of male workers. 2. In the industrial distribution of the employed women, 3.8% of them were engaged, in the primary industry. In 1980, percentage of women in the nation's employed population was 43.8% in the secondary industry and 34.0% in the tertiary industry. However, the number of women employed in the primary industry was gradually decreasing while such number in the secondary and tertiary .industry is constantly increasing. Among the women workers employed with establishments respectively employing five or more workers, 80.1% were engaged in the manufacturing activities. 3. The only business where there were more women than men engaged in is that services. Women occupied 45% in the farming, forestation and the like 44% in the sales providing and 25% in the technical professions and administration and management activities. 4. Among the women workers, 18.1% were aged between 25 to 34, 30.1% between 14 to 24 and 51.8% aged 35 or over. This reflects the fact that the first group were busy in such activities as marriage, delivery of babies and other housekeeping works, while the second group were mostly unmarried and the third group were mostly free from housekeeping duties. The second group occupied 62.9% in the secondary industry while the three groups were equally distributed in the primary and tertiary industries. 5. Of all the women workers, 77.8% finished primary school or non-educated and only 1.886 graduated from junior colleges or higher schools. The women engaged in professional businesses had higher educational background than those in farming, animal raising, forestation, fisheries, production-related businesses, services and sales. In the employment rate, more than one half of those women workers who finished primary school or were non-educated were engaged in the production activities, while only one-third of those women who were educated in the secondary schools or higher educational institutions were employed. This trend must be taken seriously not only to realize more effective educational investment but also to utilize national resources more effectively. 6. More women workers in those businesses of administration, management, farming, animal raising, forestation, fishery, sales and services were married than those in professional businesses, clerical works, production-related businesses. In all lines of business, except in the mining and stone-quarrying industries where 55.50 of women workers were married, overwhelmingly more women workers were unmarried. This means that most women workers resign from their business positions when they marry. Accordingly, most female workers were less experienced and their positions and wages were lower than those of male workers. Among many reasons why women workers resign from their jobs after marriage are the existing social value, lack of understanding by their family members and their attitude toward their own occupations. It is not only unfavorable for the protection of women's rights but also undesirable for the nation's effort to mobilize more menpower that the potential ability of married women were not fully utilized. The existing attitude toward employed women of the employed women themselves and their families must, therefore, be renovated and the Government and enterprises must make positive policy to enable women to work after marriage. 7. The average wages of women workers were 42.0% of those of men workers in average. Women were paid far less than men even though they have the same or similar educational background and work in the same or similar industry or business line. Their wages per hour are 42.4.% of those of men. The motives of women to be employed were found to be mainly economic reasons. In view of such motives, their wages were too low. In consideration of the fact that the wage, among others, is the main factor to cause them to sec their jobs more attractive, the low wages of employed women must be reconsidered.
본 연구는 조직의 리더십과 직무환경이 사회복지사의 실천수행에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 자료수집은 2019년 7월 4일부터 30일까지 경기도 소재 사회복지시설 종사자를 대상으로 이루어졌으며, 연구의 목적에 동의한 205명의 자료를 수집⋅분석하였다. 연구결과 사회복지사의 실천수행에 영향을 미치는 요인은 결혼상태, 리더십(변혁적 리더십, 거래적 리더십), 직무환경(직무평가 공정성)으로 나타났으며, 리더십과 실천수행의 관계에서 직무환경이 매개효과를 갖는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 본 연구의 결과를 바탕으로 사회복지사의 전문직 실천수행 역량을 향상시키기 위해서는 조직구성원 성숙도에 따른 적절한 리더십 발휘와 더불어, 직무환경으로서의 직무평가에 대한 공정성을 증진시켜야 함을 논의하였다. This study analyzed the effect that an organization’s leadership and work environment exerts on social worker’s practice performance. The survey for data collection was conducted from July 4th 2019 to July 30th, 2019 among employees of social welfare facilities located in Gyeonggi province. We analyzed the data from 205 participants who had agreed on the purpose of the study. The data analysis showed that the factors for social worker’s practice performance were found to be marital status, leadership (transformational leadership, transactional leadership) and work environment. On the other hand, work environment (fairness of job evaluation) was found to have a mediating effect in the relationship between leadership and practice performance. Based on the results, this study discussed the need for adequate leadership to be practiced by taking the maturity of the organization members into consideration so that social worker’s professional competence in practice performance can improve. As for work environment, it is imperative to increase the fairness in job evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between couple's Marital-Expectations and Marital-Realities in their family life. This data were got from a sample survey of 153 men and 160 women who had been married for less than 5 years. Frequency, Percentage, t-test and paired t-test were utilized for the statistical analysis. Finding from the analysis of the data can be summarized as follows. First, the Marital-Expectations were high in the wives. As in the case of the Marital-Expectations, we could know that they expected high in common in child rearing expectation. But the wives' Marital-Expectations were higher than husbands' in emotional stability expectation and recreation expectation. In addition, the Marital-Realities were low in the husbands, for they were evaluated low by the wives. The husbands were evaluated low in husbands' household work reality by the wives. On the other hand, the wives were evaluated low in the kinship relation reality by the husbands. Second, the differences between the couple's Marital-Expectations were represented relatively high in household work expectation. And the difference of the couple's Marital-Realities were represented relatively high in emotional stability reality and kinship reality. Third, on the differences between the couple's Marital-Expectations and Realities, the wives were much higher than the husbands. First of all, the differences between the couple's Marital-Expectations and Realities were high in recreation expectation. The husbands were low in the difference of kinship relation between Marital-Expectations and Realities. Furthermore, the wives were low in the difference of household economy management of Marital-Expectations and Realities. Thus the differences between couple's Marital-Expectations and Realities were represented relatively high in household economy management and household work. According to the above results, the purpose of this study was examined and investigate the difference of the Marital-Expectations and Marital-Realities in early family life.
The purpose of this study was to develop an educational program for marital conflict resolution to improve couple's abilities at conflict solution as a function of their interaction systems. Based on the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Model of Baucom and Epstein(1990), it was attempted to devise an intervention integrating cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of marital dysfunction. The findings showed that the levels of marital dysfunction were statistically significant between the pretest and post-test. That is, marital dysfunctional levels were decreased in the post-test. The findings indicated that wives' potential abilities at marital conflict resolution were somewhat increased. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in both cognitive and behavioral factor of marital dysfunction between the pretest and post-test. The marital dysfunction scores in these two components among subjects were decreased after implementing intervention. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the emotional factor of marital dysfunction. The follow-up was also conducted to assess the degree to which couples used constructive and problematic means of handling conflict. The results suggested that subjects after completing the program were less likely to use problematic tactics and were more likely to use constructive ones during marital conflict than before participating in the educational program.
The purpose of this study is to make a model of Family Life Cycle in Korea now & to find factors for housing consciousness and behavior and to analyze the relationship between housing life cycle and the total housing satisfaction. Ⅰ. Answers to a queationnaire were collected from 724 housewives in seoul area, 232 housewives in big cities, 203 housewives in small cities. The questionnaire contained 10 items about family situations. Analyzing methods employed for modeling of family life cycle are frequency family situations. Analyzing methods employed for modeling of family life cycle are frequency, percentage, X^2-test. Results and findings are as follows: (1) The mean of first marriage age is 22.4 yrs old. 23.5 yrs old is the result of statistical materials published by E.P.B. 1975. The age of first marriage is higher according to the age, education & residential area. (2) The mean of first baby bearing age is 24.2 yrs old (generally 1 year after marriage). This age is the same as the result of statistical materials published by E.P.B. (3) The mean of last baby bearing age is 32.6 yrs old compared to the E.P.B. statistical materials 3 yrs low. This age is very different according to the age, education & residential area. (4) The mean of first child marriage age is 46.4 yrs old compared to the E.P.B. statistical materials 2.5 yrs old low. (5) The mean of last marriage age is 52.7 yrs old. This age is also 2.3 yrs low compared to the result of E.P.B. materials. (6) The number of child & interval is quite different according to the result of family planning education generation or not. (7) According to the wife's employment, it does not show any difference. (8) The result of analyzing by F.L.C., we don't have launching stage & middle age stage apparently. So, We can make model of F.L.C. in Korea as follows. (it will be change) (1) Establishment stage; from marriage to first baby born. (23 yrs old-24 yrs old) (2) Child bearing & rearing stage; from first baby born to first child enter primary school (24 yrs old-30 yrs old) (3) Child education stage; from first child primary school to high school graduation (30 yrs old-42 yrs old) (4) Child adult stage; from first child got army, college or stay at home(42 yrs old-48 yrs old) (5) Child adult stage; from first child marriage to last child marriage(48 yrs old-57 yrs old) (6) Aging stage; from last child marriage to self dying (57 yrs old after) Ⅱ. Answers to a questionnaire for a study Housing were collected from 623 housewives in seoul area. The questionnaire contained 26 items on housing characteristics of housing needs and housing values with some background questions. Each respondent was asked to evaluate the importance of characteristics as well as her evaluation on that characteristics by giving 1-3 points. The degree of housing satisfaction on each characteristics was calculated by multiplying the points for the importance the characteristics by that for her own house. Following statistical methods were employed to analyze the findings. (1) Factor analysis technique was used in analyzing the results on the importance and satisfaction to find the underlying concept on the housing consciousness and behavior. (2) The factors on housing mobility push and pull were crosstabulated for X^2-test with housing life cycle. (3) Analysis of variance technique was adopted to find the variance of the housing total satisfaction due to the selected independant variables. The conclusions derived from the interview and the statistical analysis are as follows; (1) It was found that the degree of satisfaction is better criterion for the underlying concept of housing consciousness and behavior than the degree of importance for housing characteristics. (2) The important factors for the housing consciousness and behavior are ① Family centrism―Quality of Housing ② Location ③ Social Prestage ④ Maintenance ⑤ Personal Values ⑥ Neighborhood Physical Environment ⑦ Neighborhood Social Environment, in order of importance. These factors comprise 54% in interpreting the housing consciousness and behavior. (3) The family centrism was the strongest housing consciousness and behavior factor among others for housing characteristics contained in the underlying concept, Family Centrism are the affordability and rooms available for the privacy. (4) The housing push and pull factors vary according to the housing life cycle. Location(distance to work) is the pull factor during the period of family establishment, and Neighborhood Physical Environment (availability for better enducation) pull as well as push factor. The majority of the housewives chose house for Location (distance to work), and want to move for the reason for Neighborhood Physical Environment (better education for the children) during the period for chilren's education. After the children have grown up, Neighborhood Physical Environment determines the housing pull and push factors. Push characteristic during the period change to tranquility from the better environment of the children's education. (5) Significant correlation was found between tenure and total housing satisfaction from t-test by significance level P<.001. (6) Covariance with the total housing satisfaction with selected independent variables are recognized p<.05 for educational level, p<.01 for period of residence and age, and p<.001 for income and size of the house. On the other hand the frequency of mobility and family life cycle with the total housing satisfaction didn't show covariant relationships under statistically significant level. The findings in this study can be utilized in the future studies on the housing consciousness and behavior in detail. For the purpose a continued study is suggested.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between perception of equity in marital life and marital satisfaction. In addition to this study examined the effect of perception of equity in marriage life on marital satisfaction of employed women. And this study examined the effect of variables of employed women on marital satisfaction and perception of equity marital life. The major findings of the study were summarized in the following. First, employed women's perception of equity in marital life differs significantly according to the variables such as wife's education, total income, religion, type of job, motive of employment, job satisfaction. Secondly, employed women's marital satisfaction differs significantly according to the variables such as wife's education, marriage type, total income, religion, type of job, motive of employment, job satisfaction. Thirdly, in the result of hierarchical regression analysis, among the variables which significantly affect marital satisfaction, perception of equity in marital life is the most influential factor, especially perception of daily life equity. This variable accounts for 46% of the variance in married employed women's marital satisfaction. The second, the variables affecting wives' marital satisfaction were the characteristics of job employed women and these variables account for 6% of the variance in employed wife's marital satisfaction. In conclusion, this study finds that neotraditionlism is still prevailing in Korea society. Because perception of equity in marital life, especially equity about daily life, like housework, child-care, is the most influencing variable, this study proposes the available policies to change their neotraditionalism and developing enhancement of equity of marital lives.
hesis it the first study on family healthiness recognition of parent and child generations of rural families in Korea, and on health-related variables. The subjects of the study are all couples from the selected 40 villages whose eldest child's educational level is at least at a middle school level and one child of the couples'. The data of 534 persons from 178 households were analysed. The findings from this study showed that family healthiness recognition degree of the parent generation was higher than that of the child generation. Health degree was found to be higher in a nuclear family than in an extended family, and in a recognition group of local society problems than in non-recognition group. The explanatory power of each health-related variable was different according to generations, while socio-psychological variable had more explanatory power than physical and materialistic variable. The most affective variable group was relational variable one in both generations. The groundwork of this treatise can be used as basic materials to establish a model of healthy rural family and plan programs for healthiness improvement of rural families.
The purpose of this study was the development of Korean Family Strengths Scale for strengthening the family in Korea. The Study investigated characteristics of family strengths in Korea, and developed the Korean Family Strengths Scale based on them. The data for this study were obtained from a survey on a sample of 286 people ranging from 18 to 60 years who were living in Seoul and Kyunggi-do and 1675 married people ranging from 20 to 69 years who were living in Seoul and metropolitan cities in Korea. The major findings were as follows; 1) The study founded 10 qualities, which were identified as family strengths by open-end questionnaire. The qualities are Respect, Commitment, Appreciation and Affection, Positive Communication, Sharing Values and Goals, Role Performing, Physical Health, Connectedness with Social Systems, Economic Stability, Ability to Solve Problem. Among ten qualities, Physical Health was rejected because of lower reliability. 2) 77 of initial 95 items were selected by 6 experts' judgement on items. 3) In the consequence of calculating items' correlation coefficient on the factors and Cronbach's a when each item was deleted, the correlation coefficient was lower than r=.5 in 9 items, and Cronbach's a became higher than before when the above 9 items were deleted. Throughout this process, eventually total 68 items of 9 qualities were selected as the properest ones to measure family strengths in Korea.