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As the occurrence rate of terror and hazard is increasing throughout the world, GSA, DoD, and FEMA are proceeding a study about mitigating the damage of terror. Korea is no more a safe place from the terrorist's threat, so we need to make measures against them. In this study we developed modified RVS System by revising some items to adjust the system to the domestic condition and conducted a risk assessment on several tall buildings in Korea. By using IRVS system which is developed by DHS, we also carried out the risk assessment. Comparing the results between RVS with IRVS, we performed terror risk evaluation of tall buildings. Through risk assessment of several tall buildings, we analyzed key factors of each scenarios and suggested the mean value of each items, so we would like to help the counter-terrorism in the design phase.
Recently network restoration is emerged as a major issue as the network link capacity is increasing tremendously especially in the optical network. Major problem in the network restoration is how to setup the restoration path or backup path which can guarantee the bandwidth assigned to a working path, consequently resulting in the QoS routing issues. In this paper we introduce an algorithm to establish a working path and its backup path which guarantee the bandwidth of a working path, at the same time reducing the bandwidth consumption by sharing the bandwidth of backup paths unless its corresponding working path through the same link. And we show results about bandwidth consumption of the algorithm by simulation.
이 논문에서는 잉크젯 프린터 헤드의 vapor bubble 형성 및 drop 사출 과정의 역학에 관한 1차원적 모델링 및 열·유체역학적인 해석을 기술하였다. 섬광단계와 관성 단계로 분류되는 2-단계 모델을 제시하고 integral method를 사용하여 각 단계의 역학 지배방정식을 수립하였다. Vapor가 노즐 벽면을 따라 움직일 때의 속도 gradient를 시간의 함수로 가정하여, vapor의 압력, 온도, 액체-수증기 경계면의 온도강하, bubble의 크기 및 drop의 사출속도를 산출하고 노즐의 길이, 표면장력, bubble의 초기 핵화 온도 및 bubble의 속도 gradient 변화가 bubble 크기에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 잉크액 내부의 열전도 편미분방정식의 수치해법은 유한 차분방정식을 사용하고, 모델링 시스템 방정식은 Livermore의 stiff 상미분방정식 해법을 적용하여 오차를 개선하였다. Maple V 소프트웨어를 사용하여 simulation을 해석하였고 그 결과는 Tirumala & Lee(1988)의 실험과 만족할 만한 일치를 보여준다. This paper presents a one-dimensional analysis for simulation of bubble growth and collapse dynamics in the bubble ink-jet printhead through the thermal and fluid dynamics approach as well as mathematical modeling. A two-stage model classified into flashing stage and inertia stage was proposed and the governing modeling equations for each stage were established with integral method. The vapor pressure, temperature, liquid-vapor interface temperature drop, bubble size, and drop ejection velocity were derived with assumed vapor velocity gradient along the nozzle wall as a function of time. The effects of the nozzle heights, surface tension, nucleation temperature and vapor velocity gradient upon the bubble size were investigated. The ink heat conduction equation was solved via finite difference method. The solution of the governing differential equations was improved with Livermore stiff ODE method. Computer simulation results are in relatively good agreement with experiments done by Tirumala & Lee(1980).
Recent studies suggest that democratic institutions without proper government capacity or liberal institutions are hard to be consolidated and do not increase or may even decrease peace, prosperity, and human rights protection. If not democratic institutions, what factor(s) initiate(s) human rights protection? When should democratic institutions be built? Does democratic institution building have to precede or follow state building or liberal institution building? To answer these questions, this study explores two issues: parameter heterogeneity in the relationships between human rights protection and its determinants; (inter)dependence between the democratic effect and other effects. The quantile regression results show that institutional democracy does not work in countries with serious human rights problems whereas judicial independence, press freedom, and international organization ameliorate human rights problems in those countries, which suggests that democracy should come later. However, the analysis of interaction effects shows that democracy and other factors condition each other, which in turn suggests that democracy had better come as soon as possible.
This article argues that human rights improvements are hard to achieve even in democracies because elites and citizens may not want to sacrifice other policy goals for human rights reforms even though both elites and citizens are believed to prefer better human rights protections. Improving human rights is a costly job that requires capacity to deter or reconcile with opposition against reforms, rationales and incentives to break bureaucratic rigidity, and the people's consent to use resources, as well as sound institutions and higher levels of economic development. Without changes in domestic preferences or resources that are exogenous to domestic institutions and somewhat susceptible to international factors-including changes in power structures, norm diffusion, transactions, and assistance-democratic leaders have little to do beyond supporting current practices in order not to be voted out. Using dynamic ordered probit models, this article assesses whether the democratic effect decreases human rights violations or prevents more violations than current levels. The results indicate that low levels of human rights violations are not more likely to emerge under democratic governments compared to other types of regimes, but low levels of violations are more likely to continue in democracies, which suggest that democratic institutions are effective in maintaining good practices rather than creating them. Demonstrating the limited nature of the democratic effect, this article also lends insight into the alternative causal routes involving international contexts for the improvement of human rights.