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The efficacy of fungicides was compared for control of root rot as well as leaf blight caused by Phytophthora cactorum on ginseng plants. Growth of P. cactorum in rlitro was completely or highly inhibited by metalaxyl, tetracyclin, captafol, carbendazim, and thiophanate + thiram. In field trials, the disease was significantly reduced not only in the root rot but also in the leaf blight when metalaxyl was applied at 4.17 mg a.i. per plant for soil drenching and 1.25 mg a.i. for foliage application. Also captafol was effective on control of the leaf blight but its effect was inferior to that of metalaxyl. Metalaxyl lost its effectiveness in vivo between the 5th and 7th week after soil wren ching. Phytotoxicity was, however, observed on 2 years old ginseng plants when metalaxyl was drenched at 8 mg a.i. while no phytotoxic symptom was developed on 2 years old ginseng plants at 4k mg a.i. and 3 years old at 16 mg a.i. per plant, respectively.
Tolclofos-methyl applied as seed dipping at 1,000 ppm for 3 hrs before sowing and soil drenching at the rate of 300 g ai./10 a in the middle of April protected emerging seedlings of Panax ginseng from damping-off caused by Rhiiutonia solani(AG2-1) in Yangjik Soil artificially infested with the pathogen. Germination rates with tolclofos-methyl, pencycuron, and control were 53.7%, 45.8%, and 7.5%, respectively, while the rate of the seeds at non-infested soil was 62.6%. The effectiveness of Tolclofos-methyl against the pathogen in the soil lasted upto 32 days in vitro. However, the transpiratio of ginseng seedlings increased greatly with chemical treatment, showing 0.02, 0.12, and 0.24 m1/cm2 leaf area/day at 0, 1,2, and 4 ppm a.i. of the fungicide, respectively.
Incidence of damping-off callsed by Rhizoctonia solani was 0.6-10.9% at "Yangjik" seedbed in Pocheon, Korea. The seedbeds where the lengths of etiolated stems (underground portion) of ginseng seedlings were 0.78-1.25 cm showed 0.8-3.2% of the disease, while 6.9-10.9% disease incidence was observed at the seedbeds with the longer etiolated stem (1.89-2.26 cm). The pathogen produced a typical girdle symptom on the etiolated portion of ginseng stems close to the soil surface. The deeper the seeds were sown, the more the disease occurred in pot soil inoculated with the pathogen, AG 2-1, showing 18.4, 27.4 and 32.9% of damping-off at the seeding depth of 1, 2 and 4 cm, respectively. Cuticle layers of colored stems (over ground portion) were well - developed to be 42.8, 58.0, and 55.0 um in thickness compared to the etiolated stems with 8.5, 15.0 and 8.0um for seedling, 2 year-old, and 3 year-old ginsengs, respectively, when the disease occurred. In the seedling and 2 year-old ginseng, the colored stems were more rigid than the etiolated. There was however, no difference in rigidness of the stem of the 3 year-old ginseng where the disease is not severe as in seedlings and 2 year-old ginseng plants.ng plants.
1. "Kresek" 유발균주(K균주)는 품종에 따라서 발현에 차이가 있었으며 지상부 또는 지하부에 접종하여도 "Kresek"을 유발시킬 수 있었으나 대조균주(N균주)는 전연 유발되지 않았다. 2. 엽백의 도관직경은 밀양 23이 유신이나 통일보다 현저히 작았으며 이들간에 고도의 통계적인 유의차가 인정되었다. 3. 밀양 23의 즙액에서 K균주들은 N균주들보다 세균의 증식이 왕성하였으며 통일에서는 균주들간에 증식의 차이가 없었다. 4. 밀양 23의 즙액친서는 K균주의 Dead phase가 정종 9일째부터 N균주는 4일째부터 시작되었으며 통일에서는 모두 3일째부터 시작되었다. 5. 밀양 23즙액의 경우 pH 3.0-4.0 범위에서 다량의 침전물이 형성되었으나 동일의 증액에서는 극히 소량의 침전물을 관찰할 수가 있었다. The study has been carried out to investigate the mechanism of 'Kresek' induction caused by Xanthomonas oryzae (Uyeda & Ishiyama) Dowson. The results are summarized as follows: 1. K-isolate could always induce 'Kresek' symptom on susceptible varieties when the pathogenic bacteria were introduced either way through the leaves or roots, while N-isolate could not induce. 2. Milyang 23 which showed 'Kresek' symptom had significantly smaller diameter of vessel elements than those of other two varieties examined. 3. The bacterial number of It-isolates in the extract of Milyang 23 was higher than N-isolates but there was no difference in bacterial number between K-and N-isolates when they were grown in the extract of Tongil. 4. N and K-isolates reached to death phase after 3 days and 9 days, respectibly, when they were grown in the extract of Milyang 23. Both isolates, however, reached to death phase at the same time after 3 days of incubation in the extract of Tonsil. 5. Heavy precipitation was observed in the extract of Milyang 23 at PH 3.0-4.0 range, while only traceable precipitation could be observed in the extract of Tongil at the same pH range under room temperature.