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The effects of preheating the gas stream on deposition characteristics of ultrafine $SiO_2$ particles were investigated theoretically. The model equations such as mass and energy balance equations and aerosol dynamic equations were solved to predict the particle growth and deposition. The gas temperatures, $SiCl_4$ concentrations, $SiO_2$ particle volumes, $SiO_2$ particle sizes and deposition efficiencies of $SiO_2$ particles were calculated for various preheating temperatures. As the preheater setting temperature increases, the $SiO_2$ particle size distribution becomes more uniform, because the effect of $SiCl_4$ diffusion decreases.
The deposition characteristics of ultrafine $SiO_2$ particles were investigated in a tube furnace reactor theoretically and experimentally controlling tube wall temperature in deposition zone. The model equations such as mass and energy balance equations and aerosol dynamic equations inside reactor and deposition tube were solved to predict the particle growth and deposition. The particle size and deposition efficiencies of $SiO_2$ particles were calculated, changing the process conditions such as tube furnace setting temperature, total gas flow rate inlet $SiCl_4$ concentration and were compared with the experimental results.
배경/목적: 간세포암은 절제 후 다양한 재발률과 생존율을 보이며 이를 예측하기 위하여 여러 임상적 및 조직학적 지표들이 이용되고 있다. 이와 더불어 최근에는 세포간 adhesion molecule인 E-cadherin 및 이와 관련된 beta-catenin과 같은 생화학적 지표가 새로운 예후 예측 인자로서 제시되었으나 아직까지 일관된 보고는 없는 실정이다. 본 연구에서는 adhesion molecule 중 종양의 진행과 전이 과정에서 흔히 관찰되는 상피
The gut-liver axis denotes the reciprocal interaction between the gut and gut microbiota, and the liver, resulting from the incorporation of signals generated by dietary, genetic and environmental factors. This bidirectional relationship is established by the portal vein which allows transport of gut-derived products directly to the liver, and the hepatic feedback route of bile and antibody secretion to the gut. The intestinal mucosal and vascular barrier is the anatomical and functional structure that serves as a field for the interactions between the gut and the liver, limiting the systemic dissemination of gut microbiota and toxins while permitting nutrients to access the circulation and to reach the liver. The control of commensal communities is crucial to maintaining homeostasis of the gut-liver axis, and as part of this reciprocal communication the liver shapes gut commensal communities. The gut-liver axis is widely participated in the pathogenesis of liver diseases, where it is increasingly the attention of clinical research. Alcohol disturbs the gut-liver axis at multiple interrelated levels, including the gut micro-biota, mucus barrier, epithelial barrier and at the level of antimicrobial peptide production, which increases microbial exposure and the hepatic proinflammatory environment. Growing evidence shows the pathogenetic role of microbe-derived metabolites, such as secondary bile acids (BAs), trimethylamine, ethanol, and short-chain fatty acids, in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver cirrhosis by itself is linked with profound alterations in gut microbiota and damage at the different levels of defense of the intestinal barrier, including the epithelial, immune, and vascular barriers. The relevance of the severe disturbance of the intestinal barrier in liver cirrhosis has been linked to live bacterial translocation, bacterial infections and disease progression. Recent research has revealed the carcinogenic effects of small molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), BAs, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) produced by the gut microbiome that downregulate the immune system in the liver. LPS can activate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Secondary BAs regulate liver cancer via natural killer T (NKT) cells. A study by Ma et al. showed that gut microbiome composition in mice closely associates with liver cancer by influencing the immune system. This group provided evidence showing that changing commensal gut bacteria in mice affected the accumulation of hepatic C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6)<sup>+</sup> NKT cells through mediation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) expression in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. CXCL16 is the only ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which mediates NKT cell survival and accumulation in the liver. The accumulation of CXCR6 in hepatic NKT cells enhances the production of interferon-,upon antigen stimulation, which contributes to the inhibition of tumor growth. The accumulation of NKT cells is known to be mainly regulated by a type of Clostridium species that metabolizes primary BAs to secondary BAs because depletion of Clostridium by vancomycin increases hepatic NKT cells and colonization of C. scindens induces a rapid decrease in liver NKT cells. This evidence highlighted the significant contribution of the gut microbiome to regulating anti-tumor immunity in liver and hepatic cancers. LTA, a major constituent of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria, has also been shown to accumulate in the livers of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice in the presence of DMBA (7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, a chemical carcinogen) that can give rise to HCC. Both deoxycholic acid and LTA cooperatively induce the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of hepatic stellate cells to produce various inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic factors, including interleukin-6, growth-regulated oncogene-alpha, CXCL9, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leading to a tumorigenic microenvironment that promotes liver cancer development in mice. The identification of the factors of the gut-liver axis primarily injured in each chronic liver disease provides possibilities for intervention. Beyond antibiotics, upcoming therapies centered on the gut include new generations of probiotics, postbiotics (bacterial metabo-lites), fecal microbial transplantation, and carbon nanoparticles. Farnesoid X receptor-agonists target both the gut and the liver and are presently being tested in various liver diseases. Finally, phages, synthetic biotic medicines that target specific bacteria or treatments that create physical barriers between the gut and the liver offer new therapeutic strategies. Considering these approaches, the armamentarium for targeting the gut-liver axis will keep expanding. Further clinical trials, translated from our up-to-date knowledge of the gut-liver axis, promise a thrilling future in the treatment of liver diseases.
The clinical features of abdominal actinomycosis are nonspecific and commonly confused with a neoplasm. Although any condition that allows the agents of actinomycosis to breach the gastrointestinal mucosa has the potential to be complicated by this infecti 복통, 종괴, 누공 및 공동과 같은 복부 방선균증의 임상 양상은 위장관을 침범한 경우 비특이적이며, 크론병과 같은 염증성 장질환과 유사한 경과를 밟아 감별 진단에 어려움을 겪을 수 있다. 복부 방선균증은 주로 복부수술이나 외상과 관련하여 발생하며 거대세포바이러스에 의한 궤양 점막 병변 등이 선행질환이 될 수 있으나, 크론병에 합병된 복부 방선균증은 매우 드문 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 증례는 크론병에 동반된 복부 방선균증의 사례로서 복부 방선균증과 크론병을