http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
맥락의 다의성을 갖는 명사-명사 결합개념의 이해에 미치는 효과를 알아보기 위해서 2개의 실험을 수행하였다. 실험 1에서는 지시문과 연습 시행을 통하여 결합개념을 관계적이거나 속성적으로 해석하도록 실험참가자의 마음갖춤새를 유도하였으며, 두 실험 모두에서 중성조건에서 해석이 관계적이거나 속성적으로 심하게 편향된 결합개념의 해석 패턴과 이해 시간을 측정하였다. 그 결과 마음갖춤새는 결합개념의 해석패턴에는 별 영향을 미치지 않았으나, 이해 시간에서는 영향을 주었다. 즉, 마음갖춤새에 따라서 편향결합개념의 해석 패턴이 바뀌는 경우는 소수에 불과하였으나, 마음갖춤새와 개념 해석 편향성이 일치할 때는 이해시간이 빨라지고 불일치할 때는 느려지는 결과가 나타났다. 한편 이야기맥락은 편향결합개념의 해석 패턴에는 상당한 영향을 미쳤으나 이해시간에서는 차이를 초래하지 않았다. 즉, 편향결합개념임에도 불구하고 이야기백락에서는 대부분이 그 맥락에 적절한 의미로 해석되었지만 이해시간을 촉진하거나 억제하는 결과는 나타나지 않았다. 연구의 결과를 개념적, 방법론적인 문제점들과 연계하여 논의하였다. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of mental set and story context on the comprehension of ambiguous noun-noun combined concepts that are biased to thematic relation or property interpretations in the neutral condition. In Experiment 1. participants' mental set was induced through the instruction and the practice trials. and the short stories consisted of 4 sentences were used as context in Experiment 2. In both experiments, interpretation patterns and comprehension times were measured. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the mental set has not so much effect on the interpretation patterns but has significant effect on the response times. Response times were shortened when the mental set was consistent with the interpretation bias of the combined concepts and were lengthened when they were inconsistent with each other. On the other hand, story context in Experiment 2 showed the reversed results. That is, the combined concepts were interpreted according to the story context in spite that they are severely biased in interpretation in the neutral condition. whereas the response times did not show any differences. The results of this study were discussed with relation to the conceptual and methodological problems.
Universal soil loss equation (USLE) is used to estimate soil loss solely or employed in any hydrologic models. Since soil erosion has been an issue in South Korea for decades, the Ministry of Environment enacted a law to regulate soil erosion in 2012, which is the Notification of topsoil erosion status. The notification is composed of preliminary and field investigations, the preliminary investigation suggests to use USLE and provides USLE factors. However, the USLE factors provided in the notification was prepared at least 10 years ago, therefore it is limited to reflect recent climate changes. Moreover the current yearly USLE approach does not provide an opportunity to consider seasonal variation of soil erosion in South Korea. A GIS-based model was therefore applied to evaluate the yearly USLE approach in the notification. The GIS-based model employs USLE to estimate soil loss, providing an opportunity to estimate monthly soil loss with monthly USLE factor databases. Soil loss was compared in five watersheds, which were Geumgang, Hangang, Nakdonggang, Seomjingang, and Yeongsangang watersheds. The minimum difference was found at Seomjingang watershed, the yearly potential soil loss were 40.15 Mg/ha/yr by the notification approach and 34.42 Mg/ha/yr by the GIS-based model using monthly approach. And, the maximum difference was found at Nakdonggang watershed, the yearly potential soil loss were 27.01 Mg/ha/yr by the notification approach and 10.67 Mg/ha/yr by the GIS-based model using monthly approach. As a part of the study result, it was found that the potential soil loss can be overestimated in the notification approach.
Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) induces vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) such as subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI). We compared MRI parameters between SVaD and svMCI and determined which MRI parameters best correlated with cognitive function and disability on cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses within them. Methods: Twenty-four patients with SVaD and twelve with svMCI were recruited. They underwent multimodal MRIs including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesion load, lacunar infarct number, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), neuropsychological testing, Sum of Boxes of Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR-SB), Barthel Index, and the Korean version of a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-K). Seventeen patients were retested after 20 months for a brain MRI and clinical evaluation. Results: There were significant differences in average MD and peak height of MD histograms within normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) between SVaD and svMCI patients. In the cross-sectional analysis, average MD within NABT significantly correlated with the composite neuropsychology score (r=-0.80, p<0.001), the composite executive function score (r=-0.67, p< 0.001), and the CDR-SB (r=0.54, p=0.001), and the Barthel Index correlated with peak heights of the MD histograms (r=0.37, p=0.03) in NABT. Changes of CDR-SB was associated with changes of average MD within WMH (r=0.57, p=0.02), and changes of GDS-K was associated with changes of WMH volume (r=0.51, p=0.04) on a longitudinal scale. Conclusions: DTI parameters in NABT correlated with cognitive impairment and disability in VCI associated with SVD. Clinical progression of SVD was associated with some increment of WML volume and ultrastructural changes in WMH.
Universal soil loss equation (USLE) had been employed to estimate potential soil loss since it was developed from the statewide data measured and collected in the United States. The equation had an origin in average annual soil loss estimation though, it was modified or improved to provide better opportunities of soil loss estimation outside the United States. The equation has five factors, most studies modifying them to adapt regional status were focused on rainfall erosivity factor and cover management factor. While the conservation practice factor (USLE P factor) is to represent distinct features in agricultural fields, it is challenging to find studies regarding the factor improvements. Moreover, the factor is typically defined using slopes. The factor defining approach was suggested in the study, the approach is a step-by-step method allowing USLE P factor definition with given condition. The minimum condition is slope and field location to provide an opportunity for using in any GIS software and to reflect regionally distinct features. If watershed location, slope, crop type, and mulching type on furrows are given, detailed definition of the factors are possible. The approach was developed from field survey in South-Korea, it is expected to be used for potential soil loss using USLE in South-Korea.
This paper examines the patterns of vowel epenthesis in English loanword adaptation that occur when English loanwords that end in postvocalic word-final stops are borrowed into Korean. We then provide a variable rule analysis of the three vowel epenthesis patterns: vowel epenthesis, no vowel epenthesis and variable vowel epenthesis, according to four linguistic factor groups, the tenseness of pre-final vowel (tense vs. lax), the voicing of the final stop (voiced vs. voiceless), the place of articulation of the final stop (coronal vs. labial vs. dorsal), and the number of syllables (monosyllabic vs. polysyllabic). Our analysis reveals that ‘tense’, ‘voiced’, ‘coronal’, and ‘monosyllabic’ are, in this order, the most significant factors for vowel epenthesis, whereas ‘labial’, ‘lax’, ‘polysyllabic’, ‘dorsal’, and ‘voiceless’ are the most crucial factors for no vowel epenthesis. It is also found that variable vowel epenthesis is most likely to occur when the factors are set as ‘lax’, ‘coronal’ and ‘voiceless’.
This article aims to re‒evaluate Syngman Rhee’s diplomacy in America during the U.S. Military Government Era. Past studies evaluated the subject only from the perspectives of domestic and international politics. However, his diplomacy needs to be re-evaluated by connecting Syngman Rhee’s ideology and nation building plan. Syngman Rhee carried out his diplomacy based on his core ideologies of independence, liberal democracy, liberal economics, anti-communism, and realistic international politics. After liberation, indepen‒dence was difficult in the Korean peninsula due to the intensifying conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union’s attempts to establish a separate government in the north, the breakdown of the Joint Soviet-American Commission, and the U.S. Military Government’s efforts to establish a Left-Right Coalition made Syngman Rhee’s nation building plan difficult. As a result, Syngman Rhee went to America and tried to conduct his diplomacy based on his ideologies. In an era of intensification of the Cold War, Syngman Rhee laid the foundation for constructing a liberal democratic nation in the southern half of the Korean peninsula with his diplomacy. 이 논문의 목적은 미군정기 이승만의 방미외교를 재평가하기 위한 것이다. 이 주제에 대한 기존연구는 다음과 같은 한계가 있다. 첫째, 이승만의 방미외교를 국내정치적으로만 해석했다는 것이다. 둘째, 이 외교를 국제정치적 측면에서만 평가했다는 것이다. 그러나 이 외교는 이승만이 가지고 있던 사상과, 국가구상과의 연관성을 가지고 평가해야 한다. 이승만은 그의 핵심사상인 자주독립, 자유민주주의, 자유경제, 반공, 그리고 현실주의적 국제정치사상에 근거하여 방미외교를 했던 것이다. 해방 이후 한반도는 미국과 소련의 대립심화로 자주독립이 되기 힘든 상황이었다. 또한 북쪽에서 소련의 단독정부 수립 움직임, 미소공위의 결렬, 좌우합작 시도 등도 이승만이 가진 국가구상 실현을 힘들게 했다. 이에 이승만은 방미하여 그의 사상에 기반한 외교를 행했다. 냉전의 심화와 맞물린 외교를 통해 이승만은 자유민주주의 국가 건설의 초석을 쌓게 되었다.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Analysis of association between variables is one of main concern in data analysis with various variables. In the early stage of analysis, linear association between variables can be grasped by the correlation coefficients when they are properly chosen for a given data. When more than two correlation coefficients are compared, sometimes the magnitude of correlation coefficients are only considered as the measure of association, and mislead the results. To raise the utility of correlation coefficients, in this study, we propose to use statistical significance through test as well as the magnitude of correlation coefficients. In detail, various correlation coefficients are compared according to the type of data. Then, the method of test for the difference between correlation coefficients are provided with corresponding examples according to the type of samples which are independent and paired samples. Furthermore, Vuong's test for non-nested models which is not well known are also studied. 여러 변수들에 대해 얻은 자료를 분석하는 경우 주요 관심 사 중 하나는 변수들 간의 상호 연관성을 분석하는 것이다. 특히 자료 분석의 초기단계에서는 자료의 형태에 맞는 상관계수를 계산하여 주요 변수들 간의 선형적인 연관성을 파악할 수 있다. 만약 두 개의 상관계수가 주어졌을 때 일반적으로 크기만을 비교하여 선형적 연관성이 더 강하다 혹은 덜 강하다는 판단만을 하는 경우가 종종 있다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 한계를 벗어나 크기비교 뿐만이 아닌 통계적인 유의성을 검증해봄으로써 상관계수의 활용도를 높여보고자 한다. 구체적으로 두 확률 변수 사이의 관계를 파악하기 위해 자료 형태에 따라 다양하게 계산되는 상관계수들의 종류에 대해 비교 검토해 보고, 독립표본과 대응표본의 경우로 나누어 여러 가지 특수한 상황에서의 상관계수 차이 검정 방법을 적절한 예와 함께 제시하고자 한다. 또한, 비지분모형의 설명력 비교 방법 중 잘 알려지지 않은 Vuong 검정의 활용에 대해 연구하였다.
Objective : The purpose of this study is to study of risk factors on depression in cognitive impairment based on ICF : comparison with the young-old and old-old. Among the elderly over 60 years old, this study is to figure out the risk factors on the elderly in early years and the elderly in late years by their age, centering on the elderly with cognitive function decline who have a high probability of progressing to dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Methods : To this end, the panel data from the 7th KLoSA (Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing) were used, and out of 1,039 elderly people with cognitive impairment, 494 young-old people in early years under 75 years old and 545 old-old people over 75 years were selected as the final subjects for analysis. Results : The results of the study are as follows. First, the importance of social activities that have been overlooked has been emphasized on factors that commonly affect the depression of the elderly with cognitive impairment. Second, differentiated approaches by age group were confirmed by the fact that the effective factors of depression vary by age. Conclusion : This study means that the elderly with cognitive impairment, which leads to dementia and mild cognitive impairment, can be identified by age. The study can be used as basic data for prevention and management measures and policy measures for the elderly with cognitive impairment. 목적 : 본 연구에서는 국제기능장애건강분류(International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, ICF)에 근거하여 인지기능저하 노인 우울의 영향요인에 관한 연구를 실시하였으며 전기 노인과 후기 노인으로 구분하여 연령별로 우울에 미치는 요인을 알아보고자 하였다. 연구방법 : 본 연구는 2018년 수행된 제 7차 고령화연구패널(Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, KLoSA)에서 K-MMSE (Korean version of mini-mental status examination) 결과 18∼23점을 받은 인지기능저하 노인 1,039명 중 75세 미만인 인지기능저하 전기 노인 494명, 75세 이상인 인지기능저하 후기 노인 545명을 분석 대상자로 선정하였다. ICF 분류의 틀을 근거로 신체기능(만성질환, 주관적 건강상태), 활동(도구적 일상생활수행능력), 참여(친한 사람들과 만나는 횟수), 환경요인(배우자와의 관계 만족도, 자녀와의 관계 만족도), 개인요인(성별, 연령, 학력, 개인소득)을 독립변수로 설정하여 우울에 미치는 변수를 보기 위해 다중회귀분석 등으로 알아보았다. 결과 : 인지기능저하 노인의 모든 연령대에서 우울에 공통적으로 영향을 미치는 요인들을 분석한 결과 참여와 환경요인에서 유의미한 결과를 보여 노인의 사회활동의 중요성이 더욱 강조되었다. 또한, 연령 집단별로 전기 노인은 개인요인의 영향을 받았고 후기 노인은 신체기능과 활동의 영향을 받는다는 점을 통해 연령 집단별로 우울 예방을 위한 차별화된 접근이 필요함을 확인하였다. 결론 : 본 연구는 치매와 경도인지장애로 이어지는 인지기능저하 노인을 대상으로 우울에 영향을 미치는 요인을 연령별로 파악하여 인지기능저하 노인을 위한 예방 및 관리 방안과 정책적 방안을 위한 기초자료로 활용할 수 있다는 점에 의의가 있다. 본 연구결과를 바탕으로 임상에서 활용할 수 있는 치매예방 프로그램과 정책적 방안들이 마련되기를 제안한다.
Soil erosion has been issued in many countries since it causes negative impacts on ecosystem at the receiving water bodies. Therefore best management practices to resolve the problem in a watershed have been developed and implemented. As a prior process, there is a need to define soil erosion level and to identify the area of concern regarding soil erosion so that the practices are effective as they are designed. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) were developed to estimate potential soil erosion and many Geographic Information System (GIS) models employ USLE to estimate soil erosion. Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC) is one of the models, the model provided several opportunities to consider various watershed peculiarities such as breaking of slope length, monthly variation of rainfall, crop growth at agricultural fields, etc. SATEEC is useful to estimate soil erosion, however the model can be implemented with ArcView software that is no longer used or hard to use currently. Therefore SATEEC based on ArcView was rebuild for the ArcGIS software with all modules provided at the previous version. The rebuilt SATEEC, ArcSATEEC, was programmed in ArcPy and works as ArcGIS Toolset and allows considering monthly variations of rainfall and crop growth at any watershed in South-Korea. ArcSATEEC was applied in Daecheong-dam watershed in this study, monthly soil erosion was estimated with monthly rainfall and crop growth variation. Annual soil erosion was computed by summing monthly soil erosion and was compared to the conventional approach to estimate annual soil erosion. The annual soil erosion estimated by the conventional approach and by summing monthly approach did not display much differences, however, ArcSATEEC was capable to provide monthly variation of soil erosion.