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Methods for reproducibly isolating and enriching small extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood are essential for clinical utilization of small EVs in cancer patients. We combined ultracentrifugation (UC) with polymer-based precipitation (ExoQuick [EQ] or Total Exosome Isolation [TEI] kit) to isolate small EVs (diameter, 30–150 nm) from the serum of breast cancer patients. We compared the performance of four cycles of UC (UC4x) with that of two cycles of UC followed by enrichment using the EQ (UC2x→EQ) or TEI (UC2x→TEI) kits. The mean concentration of small EVs isolated from 1 mL of serum using UC2x→EQ (139.0±29.1 μg) and UC2x→TEI (140.4±5.0 μg) did not differ from that obtained using UC4x (141.8±26.9 μg). The mean number of EV particles obtained using UC4x was 29.2± 9.9×109 per mL of serum, whereas UC2x→EQ and UC2x→TEI yielded higher numbers of EVs (50.7±17.0×109 and 59.3±20.6×109, respectively). Concentrations of EV microRNAs, including miR-21 and miR-155, did not differ between the three methods. In conclusion, performing UC prior to the use of polymer-based precipitation kits could be feasible for isolating small EVs from human serum in large sample-based translational researches.
Recently, various types of pedicle screws have been developed considering the anatomical structure of the spine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pullout stiffness and strength of two types of commercial pedicle screws. The design of two type screws were single pitched thread (ST) pedicle screw and dual pitched thread (DT) pedicle screw, respectively. The tests were conducted in accordance with the ASTM standards using polyurethane (PU) test blocks which has anatomical structure of the spine. There was no significant difference in pullout stiffness between two types of screw. However, DT exhibited higher pullout strength than ST (p<0.05). Pedicle screw with dual pitched thread showed higher pullout strength without decrease in pullout stiffness compared to the standard pedicle screw. In conclusion, dual pitched thread design of the pedicle screw is considered to be more suitable than the single pitched thread for the anatomical structure of the spine.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the discourses through epistemological framing and the factors influencing the epistemological framing of high school students involved in FPBL(Flipped and Problem-Based Learning) classes on cancer. FPBL classes in twelve steps were conducted for three weeks with 16 students of a life-science club in a general high school. To collect data from four groups of four students, group activities were recorded as well as the whole-class activities. During the classes, the data from all discourses and activities were collected, and interviews and self-evaluation reports were performed. All the discourses and interviews were transcribed and coded. The analysis showed that discourses regarding ‘finding the right answers’, ‘using only the information given by the teacher’, ‘accumulating information without criticism’, ‘filling in the worksheets without discussion’, ‘producing output to satisfy the teacher’, and ‘being not confident in learning’ were found when classroom-game framing was formed. When making-sense-of-phenomena framing was established, discourses featuring ‘there are no fixed answers’, ‘using one's background knowledge and asking questions with curiosity’, ‘critical search for information and organization of it’, ‘active discussion’, ‘reaching a rational solution’, and ‘expressing self-confidence in learning’ appeared. The factors that affected classroom-game framing were misconceiving unstructuredness of FPBL, misunderstanding the finding-facts step, positioning framing of indicator-receiver, and having the burden to produce output. The factors that affected the formation of making-sense-of-phenomena framing were students’ internalization of problems, the teacher’s feedback, characteristics of the problem-solving step, and positional framing of facilitator-constructor. These results can be useful resources for teachers who want to apply FPBL lessons to their classes to promote learner's epistemological framing.
In this paper, the contents of the development of RESS(Radar Environmental Signals Simulator) for the test of active phased array multi-function radar are described. The developed RESS can simulate multiple target environments, such as target/jamming/missile response/cluster signals, by using received radar operational information and simulated scenario. It can also modulate frequency, phase, gain, timing on all waveforms operated by multi-function radar and simulated two targets and one jamming in the beam. The RESS can be used to perform functional and performance verification of the active phased array multi-function radar with sub-array receiving structures.