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Milking center wastewater (MCW) has a relatively low ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N ratio), which should be separately managed from livestock manure due to the negative impacts of manure nutrients and harmful effects on down-stream in the livestock manure process with respect to the microbial growth. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is linked to inhibition of the second nitrification and reduces around 40% of the carbonaceous energy available for denitrification. Thus, this study was conducted to find the optimal operational conditions for the treatment of MCW using an attached-growth biofilm reactor; i.e., nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.14, 0.28, 0.43, and 0.58 kg m–3 d–1 and aeration rate of 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24 m3 h–1 were evaluated and the comparison of air-diffuser position between one-third and bottom of the reactor was conducted. Four sand packed-bed reactors with the effective volume of 2.5 L were prepared and initially an air-diffuser was placed at one third from the bottom of the reactor. After the adaptation period of 2 weeks, SND was observed at all four reactors and the optimal NLR of 0.45 kg m–3 d–1 was found as a threshold value to obtain higher nitrogen removal efficiency. Dissolved oxygen (DO) as one of key operational conditions was measured during the experiment and the reactor with an aeration rate of 0.12 m3 h-1 showed the best performance of NH4-N removal and the higher total nitrogen removal efficiency through SND with appropriate DO level of ~0.5 mg DO L-1. The air-diffuser position at one third from the bottom of the reactor resulted in better nitrogen removal than at the bottom position. Consequently, nitrogen in MCW with a low C/N ratio of 2.15 was successfully removed without the addition of external carbon sources.
Background: In order to prepare for the regulation about the limit of manure production, the status of manure management and the amount of nutrients in the compost discharged from Hanwoo breeding farm shall be known. This study aimed to find the practical amount of nutrients (volatile solids, VS; total nitrogen, T-N; total phosphorus, T-P) in manure, and compost samples collected from 40 Hanwoo breeding farms and the loss of the nutrients was calculated during the composting period, which supports to develop nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs) for each nutrient. Results: Although the addition of bedding materials for composting caused the increase of the VS amount before composting, the comparison of VS, N, and P amounts in between manure and compost showed the lower VS by 4 % as well as T-N and T-P amounts by 69 and 40 %, respectively, of which values were corresponded with the NLCs of 0.96, 0.31, and 0.60 for VS, N, and P, respectively, based on the questionnaire, and sample analyses. Considering with the environmental impacts including land application from Hanwoo manure, P loss should be zero before and after composting. In this regard, nitrogen loss of 50 % occurs and VS was increased by 30 %. In addition, feasible cases for the calculations based on the notification from Ministry of Environment were compared with this study. Conclusions: The development of NLCs from Hanwoo manure in this study implies that the loss of nutrients in manure occurs during the composting or storing period. The mass balances of N and P from livestock manure to land application may be overestimated over the practical values. It is necessary to build up the database about each livestock category other than Hanwoo.
Background: Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods: This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms. The broiler manure was composted using deep litter composting while for layer deep litter composting, drying, and simple static pile were in practice. The effect of weight reduction and storing period during composting was checked. Three weight reduction cases of compost were constructed to calculate nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs) using data from; i) farm investigation, ii) theoretical P changes (ΔP = 0), and iii) dry basis. Results: During farm investigation of broiler and layer with deep litter composting, there was a 68 and 21% N loss whereas 77 and 33% P loss was found, respectively. In case of layer composting, a loss of 10-56% N and a 52% P loss was observed. Drying manure increased the P concentrations therefore NLCs calculated using dry basis that showed quite higher reductions (67% N; 53% P). Nutrient loss from farm investigation was much higher than reported by Korean Ministry of Environment (ME). Conclusions: Nutrients in manure are decreased when undergo storing or composting process due to microbial action, drying, and leaching. The nutrient load applied to soil is less than the fresh manure, hence the livestock manure management and conservation of environment would be facilitated.
양분총량제 대응을 위해서는 한우를 사육함에 따라 발생하는 분뇨의 관리실태 조사 및 퇴비내 양분의 OJ:을 파악하는 것이 매우 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 총 40호의 한우농가를 대상으로 분뇨관리실태 및 퇴비 내 존재하는 양분 (volatile solids, VS; total nitrogen, T-N; total phosphorus, T-P)의 실질적인 양을 조사하고 퇴비화 과정 중의 분 해량을 측정하여 각 OJ:분의 부하계수를 산정하였다. 분뇨의 퇴비화가 이루어지기 이전에 톱밥 등의 깔짚이 투입되어 YS의 양이 크게 증가함에도 불구하고 VS는 약 4% 감소하는 것으로 나타났으며 T-N, T-P는 각각 69, 40%씩 감소하는 것으로 조사되었다. 따라서 이에 상응하는 양분부하계수는 각각 0.96, 0.31, 0.60인 것으로 조사되었다 퇴비화 전후의 이론적인 T-P값은 차이가 없어야 하나 현장에서는 일반적으로 침출수 및 빗물 유실에 의해 차이가 발생하기 때문에 P의 부하범위를 환경전체로 고려할 경우 (&=0), T-N 및 VS의 분해율은 각각 50과 30%인 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구를 통하여 산정된 한우분뇨의 양분부하계수는 퇴비화 과정 중 분해된 양분의 양을 고려한 것으로 토양에 적 용되는 실질적인 양분수지 계산을 가능케 할 것이며, 향후 양분총량제 대응을 위해서는 한우뿐만 아니라 각 축종별 양분관리 데이터베이스 확립이 매우 시급할 것으로 사료된다.
To develop a sustainable composting method for livestock mortality, a natural aeration-composting process was designed and the influences of bulking materials on the mortality composting process were studied. Bulking materials(e.g., compost, swine manure, sawdust, and rice husks), easily supplied at the scene of an animal mortality outbreak, were tested in this research. A lab-scale composting system(W34×L60×H26cm) was made using 100mm styrofoam, and natural aeration was achieved through pipes installed on the bottom of the system. Four treatments were designed(compost, compost+swine feces, sawdust, and rice husks treatment groups) and all experiments were done in triplicates. During composting for 40 days, no leachate was observed in compost and sawdust treatment groups, whereas 18 and 8.2 ml leachate/kg-mortality was emitted from the compost + feces and rice husks treatment groups, respectively. Dimethyl disulfide(DMDS) emission during the composting was very low in all treatment groups, possibly due to the bio-filtering function of the compost cover layer on the pile. The mortality degradability in compost, compost+feces, sawdust, and rice husks groups was 25.3, 25.8, 13.5, and 14.5%, respectively, showing significantly higher levels in compost and compost+ feces groups(p<0.05). Also, only the compost+feces group produced enough heat(over 55℃) and lasted for 7 days, indicating that bio-security cannot be guaranteed without feces supplementation.
Magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) recovered from swine manure was prepared as an alternative phosphorus (P) source. Conventional P additives, monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were compared with the MHP in terms of growth and P availability by juvenile carp Cyprinus carpio. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared using practical feed ingredients without P supplementation to which four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 6.5 g following 24 h fasting after 2 weeks of adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 9 weeks. Fish fed the MHP had weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and specific growth rate (SGR) comparable to those fed the MCP. Those values of both the MHP and MCP groups were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the other groups. Fish groups fed control and the TCP showed the lowest WG, PER, and SGR and the highest FCR among treatments. No fish were died among treatments during the experimental period. Fish fed control and the TCP showed hematocrit and hemoglobin significantly lower (p < 0.05) than fish fed the MHP. The lowest inorganic P (Pi) in plasma was found in the control group. Even though Pi was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from other phosphate groups, fish fed the MCP and MHP retained higher P in whole body than the other groups. P availability was determined to be 93.2, 62.4, 6.1, and 98.0% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. The present results suggested that the MHP recovered from wastewater stream could be used as an alternative P source in carp diet.