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      • KCI등재

        백제인의 미의식

        이내옥 역사학회 2006 역사학보 Vol.0 No.192

        Artistic Consciousness of Baekje People

      • KCI등재

        운동학의 역사적 의미

        옥광,최석규 대한운동사협회 2011 운동학 학술지 Vol.13 No.1

        [INTRODUCTION] The purpose of this study is to analyze the definitions and principles of physical education, physical activity, and sport based on their lexical meanings and prior studies. Moreover, this study explores their history after their creation and introduction and finally brings the light of kinesiology's academic scope and terminological differences and its future. [METHOD] Based on the study method of inter-subjective discussion on prior studies including primary and secondary materials, this study reached the following conclusions. [RESULT] First, the definitions of physical education, physical exercise and sport, physical education means all the movements including instinctive body motions of humans before their abilities to perceive factors of physical exercise or sport developed in accordance with the creation of letters, which evolved into physical exercise, an education through movements to combine tribes, form a people and integrate a national-level community. Sport from western perspectives, which comprehensively implies factors of play through movements, can be defined as the pleasure accompanying diverse movements to satisfy humans' desires and improve their quality of life. Physical education in lexical terms means movements, that is, humans' body motions to discipline their bodies or enhance their health, and physical exercise is education through body activities aimed at sound growth of a human body. On the other hand, sport originating from Western Perspective is fun, joyful and pleasure outdoors; sport has the lexical meaning of pleasure through body activities, which in example is expressed in "exciting sport". Second, the introduction of modern sport is a byproduct of the forced opening-up of Korean by Japanese imperialists and was carried out by missionaries and forerunners. Emperor Gojong's 1895 edict on education, which is the starting point of the modernization of Korean public education, acted as a spiritual standard in pursuit of new education. The underlying principle of the edict was to place more importance on physical education than virtue and knowledge educations and the edict became the origin of the concept of modern physical exercise. Finally, the differentiation of physical exercise studies was the result of changes in the sociocultural environment outside the studies, not the product within the system of the studies. In addition, it was due to the blurring of disciplinary boundaries in accordance with changes in the sociocultural environment to meet humans' increased desire. [CONCLUSION] Therefore the connection between kinesiology and other disciplines enabled the subject's specialization in diverse fields beyond the limit of the disciplinary scope confined to physical exercise and sport as an amalgamation in sport studies. [서론] 본 고(考)는 운동‧체육‧스포츠에 대한 고찰을 통해 최근 학제간 교류를 선도하고 있는 운동학에 대해 사적 고찰을 통해 그 의미를 조명하고자 하였다. [방법] 이를 위해 운동‧체육‧스포츠의 정의 및 도입과 발전에 관해 고찰하였고, 최근의 연구 동향 등을 파악함으로써 체육학과 운동학의 학문구조를 1, 2차 자료를 포함하는 선행연구를 바탕으로 한 상호주관적 논의(inter-subjective discussion)에 입각하여 연구한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. [결과] 첫째, 운동은 체육이나 스포츠적인 요소에 대한 인간의 인지력이 성숙되기 전 원초적인 인간의 신체활동을 포함하는 모든 ‘움직임'을 의미해 왔으며, 이는 고대로부터 현대사회에 이르기까지 부족 간의 집단화, 민족구성, 국가단위공동체를 결집하기위한 도구로 사용되면서 ‘움직임을 통한 교육'인 체육으로 발전하였다. 이러한 움직임을 통한 유희적 요소들을 포괄적으로 내포하고 있는 서양적 사고의 스포츠는 인간의 욕구 충족과 삶의 질 향상에 있어서 ‘다양한 움직임을 수반한즐거움'으로 이해되어 왔다. 둘째, 근대스포츠의 국내 도입은 일본제국주의에 의한 강제개항의 부산물로서, 선교사와 선각자들에 의해 전개되었다. 1895년 공교육 근대화의 시발점이라 할 수 있는 고종황제의 교육입국조서(敎育立國詔書)는 신교육을 추진함에 있어 정신적 지표로 작용하였다. 교육입국조서의 삼육은 실제생활과 거리가 먼 과거교육을 일소하고, 신교육을 수용함으로서, 국권회복에 필요한 강건하고 유능한 인재를 배양하고자하는 목적이 있었다. 셋째, 체육의 분화는 체육의 체계 내에서도출된 것이 아니라 체육 체계 밖에서의 사회·문화적인 환경변화에 의해 전개되었다. 또한 인간의 욕구증진에 부응하기 위한사회·문화적인 환경변화에 따라 학문적경계가 불분명해졌기 때문이며 이러한 변화는 현재에도 급속화의 가도에 있다. 따라서체육학계는 타 학문과 운동학과의 연계내지는 체육·스포츠학의 학문적 한계성에서 벗어나 융합의 구도로 다양성을 인정하되전문성을 강화하는 방향으로 나아가야 할 시점이 되었다. [결론] 이와 같이 운동학은 타 학문과의 연계성에 있어서 학문적 차이를 좁힐 수 있는 영역으로 판단된다. 이는 운동학이 인간의 다양한 움직임을 연구대상으로 체육·스포츠를 포함하면서 양적,질적 연구방법론을 적용한 영역들을 포용해 나간다면 관련학문의 연구영역을 배가시킬 수 있을 것이기 때문이다.

      • KCI등재

        朝鮮後期 風俗畵의 기원 : 尹斗緖를 중심으로

        이내옥 국립중앙박물관 1992 미술자료 Vol.- No.49

        The genre painting of the later Chos□n period was called sokhwa, vulgar painting, from the point of view of the yangban scholar-officials. Until now, although the studies of genre painting have certainly helped us to understand it, there remain problems especially as the work of Yun Tu -s□, a pioneer of genre painting, have not been thoroughly researched, As for his genre paintings, 'Gathering Herbs', 'Making Straw Shoes' and 'Carving Wooden Vessels' and 'Stone-breaking' are among those known today. The people who appear in Yun Tu -s□'s genre paintings are those who were looked down upon as they belonged to the lower classes of Chos□n society. The fact that these people appear as the main flgures in his paintings suggests a change towards a new society, a change advocated by Yun Du -s□. The figures in his works are all engaged in some kind of physical work : they are not the ideal types of human being sought by the yangban officials. Also we can see Yun's pioneering work, in that through his paintings he created and respresented a new era and new types of human beings. The yangban scholar-officials at that time restrained their emotional expression in both literature and art. The aesthetic categories which they pursued were those of gracefuless and moderation. In such a period, it was a drastic change for the lower classes to be seen in Yun's paintings. The genre painting of this period was based on realism, such realism was a result of changes in Confucian epistemology. Yi Ik(1681-1763) showed a new direction in leo-Confucianism by criticizing the traditional Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi : all beings in the world differ from each other. Accordingly one should seek the appropriate method with which to discriminate the different principles of each thing. To understand phenomena, one needs a variety of knowledge, which should be pursued. Thus from a human viewoin t, one should found an objective understanding of human brings according to their differences. Yun Tu -s□ shared this common understanding in common with Yi Ik's thought. Yun sought out one by one the individual characteristics of all beings by verifyin g and investigating their properties. The genre paintings of the Chos□n period came into being in this way. Yun's deep understanding and affection for the lower classes is visible in the figures that appear in his genre paintings. On the one hand he did not want to lose the moderate gentleness of the yangban scholar-officials, while on the other his recognition of the equality of all people distinguishes him from the rest of his own class. Escaping from the disillusionment and despair of the sch olar-official society, he sought new expectations and hope in the life of the lower classes. Yun Tu -s□'s concerns, hopes and expectations of these classes are represented in his paintings. He not only had knowledge of craftsmanship and other skills, which were disregarded by the yangban class, but also practised these skills himself. In his paintings he actually took as subjects both the tools and the craftsmen who carved wooden vessels. The genre paintings of Yun Tu -s□ do not display the realism that is found in kim Hong-do and Sin Yun -bok's paintings. This was probaly because of the constraints on upper-class life, an unavoidable restriction imposed by the class system, but this does not diminish the value of his genre painting, as this showed the opening of a new era, reflecting the new ideas and concerns of the time.

      • KCI등재

        동아시아 공동사회와 올림피즘:국가주의, 지역주의, 글로벌리즘

        옥광,許立宏 한국체육철학회 2008 움직임의철학 : 한국체육철학회지 Vol.16 No.2

        본 연구는 동아시아에서의 올림피즘(Olympism)과 관련된 이데올로기(ideology)들에 대한 해석을 동아시아 공동사회라는 관점에서 접근하고자 다음과 같은 연구문제를 설정하여 수행되었다. 동아시아에 확산된 올림픽의 교육운동은 서양의 제국주의, 유럽중심주의(Eurocentrism) 그리고 상업주의를 포용할 수 있는가에 대한 문제와 지역주의(Regionalism), 국가주의(Nationalism) 그리고 글로벌리즘(Globalism)이 동아시아의 올림픽 교육운동과 상호 관련성을 띄며 성장 또는 변화해 갈 수 있는가라는 문제에 대해 문헌을 중심으로 상호주관적 논의의 과정을 거쳐 설득력 있는 해답을 구하고자하였다. 동아시아에 확산되고 변용된 올림픽 교육이념은 서양의 제국주의, 유럽중심주의, 상업주의의 등의 서양 중심적 자본사상들을 포용할 수 없다고 본다. 한편, 국가주의, 지역주의 그리고 글로벌리즘은 올림피즘과 연계성을 가질 수 있다고는 보지만, 오직 지역주의와 글로벌리즘만이 유사한 구조로 올림픽이념의 한층 더 높은 가치를 표방하면서 포용될 수 있다고 본다. 주목할 만한 사실은 동아시아 국가들 간에 지역적 협력과 불필요한 편견들을 철폐하여 국가주의적 성향을 줄여나간다면 올림픽의 이상과 글로벌리즘은 실현될 것이다. 동아시아 공동체에서 상호이해와 국제적 협력 없이 글로벌리즘에 도달한다는 것은 불가능 할 것이기 때문이다. 동아시아 상생을 위해 올림픽과 스포츠를 통한 글로벌리즘의 실현은 향후 동아시아 공동체사회를 구현하는데에도 지대한 영향을 끼칠 것으로 본다. This paper has an aim to seek for an understanding Olympism in and for East Asia. Researchers has set up the following two questions. Can Western imperialism, Eurocentrism and commercialism be embraced by the Olympic Educational Movement in East Asia? Do regionalism, nationalism and globalism fit into the Olympic Educational Movement in East Asia? In terms of Olympism in and for East Asia, Western imperialism, Eurocentrism and commercialism are not embraced by the Olympic Educational Movement in East Asia. And from a Taiwanese perspective, I have shown that there are three levels of ideologies which might be able to fit into the same context of Olympism. However, only regionalism and globalism can be endorsed since they do exhibit more values of Olympism in a similar framework, whereas nationalism may entail ‘excessive patriotism' which often undermines the objectives of the Olympic Educational Movement. Noticeably, reducing nationalism by increasing more regional co-operation and abolishing unnecessary prejudices between East Asian nations is the right way for all of us to work together. For, without mutual understanding and international co-operation in our region, it is impossible to reach Globalism.

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