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      • KCI등재후보

        비타민 D와 만성 질환과의 관련성

        정유석(Yoo-Seok Chung), 유병욱(Byung-Wook Yoo), 오정은(Jung-Eun Oh), 이덕철(Duk-Chul Lee), 이홍수(Hong-Soo Lee), 조주연(Choo-Yon Cho) 대한임상노인의학회 2010 대한임상노인의학회지 Vol.11 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Background: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, not only in patients with osteoporosis but also in normal adults. Because the situation is especially severe in Korea. So, we take a look at the degree of vitamin D deficiency in Korea and the relationship between chronic diseases which are common in primary care and vitamin D level. Methods: 200 patients above the age of 20, who were admitted to the Department of Family Medicine at Soonchunhyang University from June of 2009 to May of 2010 were chosen. Questionnaires regarding the patients' drug history and afflicted disease and the average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were obtained and we looked into their relationships to the diagnosed chronic disease or possessed chronic disease such as like diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia. Results: In our study a serum 25(OH)D level lower than 80 nmol/dL (32 ng/mL) was considered vit D deficient. 127 patients (63.5%) were deficient in vit D and 126 patients (73%) were beyond adequacy. The serum 25(OH)D showed a significant positive relationship with total cholesterol (P=0.01), triglyceride (P=0.049), High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P=0.001), and Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P=0.007). The serum 1,25(OH)₂D₃ showed a significant negative relationship with Triglyceride (0.018). The serum 25(OH)D level was not shown any significant effect by Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, High density lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein. The serum 25(OH)D showed no significant relationship with the presence of existing diseases as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis or newly diagnosed as same above at admitted. also, the serum 1,25 (OH)₂D₃ showed a significant negative relationship with the presence of existing diseases as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis or newly diagnosed as same above at admitted. Preexisting treatment history or newly diagnosed at admission of diabetes (P=0.003) and hypertension (P=0.009) showed a significant inversely proportional correlation to the serum 1,25 (OH)₂D₃ level and of hyperlipidemia showed a significant directly proportional relationship to the serum 1,25 (OH)₂D₃ level (P=0.008). Conclusion: About a two-thirds of those surveyed is found to have vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D, in addition to its role in bone metabolism, seems to have an effect on the genesis of hypertension and diabetes. So, it is considered that a further prospective study on the clinical usefulness of vitamin D will be needed for chronic diseases increases due to the increase of the elderly population. 연구배경: 본 연구는 전 세계적으로 비타민 D 영양 상태가 골다공증 환자뿐만 아니라 정상 성인에서도 불충분하고, 우리나라의 비타민 D 불충분은 특히 심하다고 알려져 있다. 이 연구는 우리나라의 비타민 D 불충분의 정도와 일차의료 현장에서 접할 수 있는 만성 질환과 비타민 D 혈중 수준과의 연관성을 밝히고자 하였다. 방법: 2009년 6월부터 2010년 5월까지 순천향대학교병원 가정의학과에 입원한 20세 이상의 200명의 환자들을 대상으로 연구를 시행하였다. 입원 환자들에게 설문지를 통해 과거 병력 및 약물복용력 등을 조사하였고, 혈청 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 등을 측정하여 평균을 구하였으며 과거 병력 중 당뇨병, 고혈압, 골다공증, 고지혈증의 만성 질환이 있거나 만성 질환을 진단받은 경우와 비타민 D의 관련성을 알아보았다. 결과: 본 연구에서 혈청 25(OH)D 농도가 80 nmol/dL (32 ng/mL) 이하일 때 비타민 D 불충분으로 봤을 경우 200명의 입원 환자 중 63.5%인 127명이 비타민 D 불충분으로 나타났고, 적정도(Adequacy)에 미치지 못하는 경우는 126명(73%)인 것으로 나타났다. 혈청25(OH)D의 경우 총콜레스테롤(P=0.01), 중성지방(P=0.049), 고밀도콜레스테롤(P=0.001), 저밀도콜레스테로(P=0.007)와 유의미한 양의 상관관계를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 1,25(OH)₂D₃와 중성지방은 유의미한 음의 상관관계를 보이는 것으로 나타났음을 알 수 있다(P=0.018). 공복 혈당(Fasting plasma glucose), 당화혈색소(HbA1c), 총 콜레스테롤(Total cholesterol), 중성지방(Triglyceride), 고밀도 콜레스테롤(High density lipoprotein cholesterol), 저밀도 콜레스테롤(Low density lipoprotein cholesterol)은 혈청 25(OH)D 농도에 유의한 영향을 미치지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 혈청 25(OH)D의 경우 만성 질환인 당뇨병, 고혈압, 고지혈증, 골다공증의 과거 병력이 있거나 입원 시 진단 받은 경우에 있어서 유의미한 상관관계를 보이지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 1,25(OH)₂D₃의 경우 당뇨병, 고혈압의 과거력이 있거나 입원 시 진단 받은 경우와 유의미한 음의 상관관계를 보이는 것으로 나타났음을 알 수 있다. 당뇨병, 고혈압, 고지혈증, 골다공증은 혈청 25(OH)D에 의미있는 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 당뇨병(P=0.003), 고혈압(P=0.009)으로 치료를 받았거나 새로 진단 받은 경우 1,25(OH)₂D₃ 농도에 반비례의 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났고, 고지혈증(P=0.008)의 경우에서는 1,25(OH)₂D₃ 농도에 비례하게 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났음을 알 수 있다. 결론: 조사대상자의 약 2/3에서 비타민 D 부족이 있는 것으로 나타나고 있다. 비타민 D는 골대사와 관련된 역할 이외에 고혈압과 당뇨 발생에 있어서도 영향을 미치는 것으로 보이며, 향후 노인 인구증가에 따른 만성 질환의 증가와 함께 비타민 D 사용의 임상적인 유용성에 대한 전향적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 판단된다.

      • Nematicidal activity of alkyloxyalcohols

        Su,Jin,Lee,Joon,Oh,Park,Junheon,Kim 한국응용곤충학회 2018 한국응용곤충학회 학술대회논문집 Vol.2018 No.10

        Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus causes devastating damage to pines worldwide. To develop new agent for controlling PWN, 43 alkyloxyalcohols were synthesized and nematicidal activity was tested against PWN. As a control, monochamol, which reported to have nematicidal activity was also tested. The nematicidal activity was diffferent according to total carbon chain length in compounds and carbon numbers of diol derivates. The odd numbered carbon diol derivates (ROC5OH, ROC7OH, ROC9OH) showed weak activity. The compounds which had C14H30O2 formula (C11OC3OH, C10OC4OH, C8OC6OH, C6OC8OH) showed the same level nematicital activity as that of monochamol in the term of LC50 value. Thee compounds which had C15H32O2 and C13H28O2 formulas (C12OC3OH, C11OC4OH, C12OC3OH, C10OC3OH, C9OC4OH, C5OC8OH) were followed.

      • KCI등재

        석영과 장석의 Zeta 전위에 있어서 금속이온의 영향

        오재현,박광원,이원해,원덕환 대한금속재료학회(대한금속학회) 1974 대한금속·재료학회지 Vol.12 No.4

        石英과 長石의 活性化에 關한 資料를 얻기 爲해서 水溶液中 Mg^(++), Cu^(++), Zn^(++)과 Al^(+++)를 添加하여 鑛粒의 Zeta 電位를 測定하였다. 그리고 이들 鑛粒의 界面電氣現象과 金屬이온들의 加水分解特性을 서로 關聯시켜 比較 檢討하여 다음과 같은 結論을 얻었다. 1. 水溶液中에 金屬이온이 存在할 때 長石의 界面電氣現象은 石英과 같다. 2. 金屬이온種의 吸着으로 因해 石英과 長石의 界面은 陽(+)으로 荷電된다. 그리고 陽으로 荷電되는 pH 範圍는 金屬이온의 種類에 따라 다르다. 3. 水溶液中에 金屬이온들이 存在하면 鑛粒의 zpc(Zero point of charge)는 두 곳의 pH에서 나타난다. 두개의 zpc 중 하나의 zpc가 나타나는 pH는 M^(II)OH^+, M^(III)(OH)^+_2 및 M^(III)(OH)^(++) 이온種의 最高濃度가 나타나는 pH와 거의 一致한다. 마그네슘 이온의 경우에는 pH 10.1에서 단하나의 zpc가 나타난다. 4. Mg(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) 및 Al(III) 이온들의 加水分解特性과 zeta 電位를 關聯시켜 볼 때 Mg^(++), Cu^(++), Zn^(++) 및 Al^(+++)은 鑛粒表面에 對해 吸着力이 弱하고, 한편 M^(II)(OH)^+, M^(III)(OH)^+_2 및 M^(III)(OH)^(++) 이온種은 吸着力이 强함을 알 수 있다. To obtain a better understanding of quartz and orthoclase activation, zeta potentials of the minerals were studied in the presence of metallic ions such as Mg^(++), Cu^(++), Zn^(++) and Al^(+++). A microelectrophoresis technique has been used to measure the zeta potential, and the results have been correlated with the hydrolysis of the metallic ions in the solution. The experimental results have led to the following conclusions. 1. Zeta potentials of orthoclase in the presence of the metallic ions show a similar behavior to those of quartz. 2. Adsorption of the metallic ions renders the zeta potential of quartz and orthoclase positive. The pH range of positive zeta potential varies with the kind of cation. 3. Zero point of charge(ZPC) of the mineral surface in the presence of metallic ions appears at two different pH of solution. One of two pH of ZPC is consistent with the pH at which M^(II)(OH)^+ and M^(III)(OH)^+_2 or M^(III)(OH)^(++) species are predominant. 4. Comparison of the zeta potential data with the hydrolysis for Mg(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) species suggests that Mg^(++), Cu^(++), Zn^(++) and Al^(+++) are only weakly adsorbed at the mineral surface and that M^(II)(OH)^+ and M^(III)(OH)^+_2 or M^(III)(OH)^(++) are the main metallic ionic species adsorbed.

      • KCI등재

        중금속 오염 논토양에서 카드뮴의 부동화와 식물이용성에 대한 석회 시용 효과

        홍창오 ( Chang Oh Hong ), 김용균 ( Yong Gyun Kim ), 이상몽 ( Sang Mong Lee ), 박현철 ( Hyean Cheal Park ), 김근기 ( Keun Ki Kim ), 손홍주 ( Hong Joo Son ), 조재환 ( Jae Hwan Cho ), 김필주 ( Pil Joo Kim ) 한국환경농학회 2013 한국환경농학회지 Vol.32 No.1

        석회시용에 의한 카드뮴의 부동화와 식물이용성 저감효과를 구명하기 위해 우리나라의 대표적인 석회비료인 소석회를 선정하여 소석회에 의한 논토양 내 카드뮴의 부동화 기작과 벼의 카드뮴 흡수특성을 조사하였다. 소석회는 토양의 pH와 음하전도를 증대시켜 카드뮴의 흡착을 증대시키는 것으로 조사되었다. 소석회의 처리량을 증가시킴에 따라 식물이 이용하기 쉬운 형태인 유효태 카드뮴과 치환성 및 carbonate 결합태 카드뮴의 함량이 유의적으로 감소하였다. 소석회를 8,000 mg/kg 과량으로 시용하였을 때 CdCO3 형태로의 침전이 가능하였을 것으로 판단되나 8,000 mg/kg 이하로 처리하였을 때 CdCO3나 Cd(OH)2 형태로의 침전은 없었던 것으로 조사되었다. 또한 토양의 pH와 음하전도는 유효태 카드뮴과치환성 및 carbonate 결합태 카드뮴의 함량과 유의한 부의상관관계를 나타내었다. 따라서 소석회에 의한 토양 내 카드뮴의 부동화는 CdCO3나 Cd(OH)2 형태로의 침전형성에 의한 것이 아니라 pH와 음하전도의 증대에 기인된 카드뮴 이온의 흡착에 의한 것으로 판단되어 졌다. 논토양의 현장조건에서 소석회의 시용에 의한 벼의 카드뮴 흡수농도 저감효과를 시험한 결과, 소석회의 시용량을 증가시킴에 따라 벼의 카드뮴 흡수농도는 유의적으로 감소하는 결과를 나타내었다. Research Article : BACKGROUND : Many studies associated with cadmium (Cd) immobilization using lime fertilizer have been conducted for several decades. However, these studies did not suggest exact mechanism of Cd immobilization using lime fertilizer and evaluated effect of lime fertilizer on Cd phytoavailability in rice paddy soil under field condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted to determine exact mechanism of Cd immobilization using lime fertilizer and evaluate liming effect on Cd uptake of rice in contaminated paddy soil. Ca(OH)2 was mixed with Cd contaminated arable soil at rates corresponding to 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 mg/kg. The limed soil was moistened to paddy soil condition, and incubated at 25℃ for 4 weeks. NH4OAc extractable Cd concentration in soil decreased significantly with increasing Ca(OH)2 rate, since Ca(OH)2 markedly increased net negative charge of soil by pH increase, and decreased bioavailable Cd fractions (F1; exchangeable + acidic and reducible Cd fraction). Calculated solubility diagram indicated that Cd solubility was controlled by soil-Cd. NH4OAc extractable Cd and F1 concentration were negatively related to soil pH and negative charge. Ca(OH)2 was applied at rates 0, 2, 4, and 8 Mg/ha and then cultivated rice in the paddy soil under field condition. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw, and root of rice plant decreased significantly with increasing application rate of Ca(OH)2. CONCLUSION(S): Alleviation of Cd phytoavailability with Ca(OH)2 can be attributed primarily to Cd immobilization due to the increase in soil pH and negative charge rather than precipitation of Cd(OH)2 or CdCO3, and therefore, Ca(OH)2 is effective for reducing Cd phytoavailability of rice in paddy soil.

      • KCI등재후보

        광물성 섬유의 수산이온기 생성이 흰쥐 폐포대식세포의 세포독성과 적혈구 세포막의 지질과산화에 미치는 영향

        김경아,윤임중,김지홍,장황신,오민화,임영,박정일 大韓産業醫學會 1997 대한직업환경의학회지 Vol.9 No.3

        There is some evidence suggesting that the mechanism of pulmonary toxicity of natural fibrous silicate, asbestos, is related to the generation of oxygen-based free radical. Especially the hydroxyl radical(·OH) is believed to be the most reactive one. ·OH is a potent toxic oxidant, ·OH is which means highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Nevertheless there has been no previous report about ·OH generation from man-made mineral fibers except asbestos. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that both cytotoxicity of alveolar macrophage and lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes are associated with ·OH production by mineral fibers in vitro. The results were as follows: 1. ·OH production in vitro was progressively increased by the concentration dependent pattern with the same mineral fiber. The production of ·OH in vitro by man-made mineral fiber was markedly decreased compared with that of natural mineral fiber except rock wool. 2. Lipid peroxidation of mineral fiber-exposed erythrocyte suspension was significantly increased compared with that of phosphate-buffered saline(PBS) control group. Lipid peroxidation in amosite and chrysotile group was larger than that of other mineral fibers. 3. There was a significantly positive correlation between ·OH production in vitro and lipid peroxidation of mineral fiber-exposed erythrocyte. 4. All of mineral fibers were related to the cytotoxicity of alveolar macrophage in concentration-dependent fashion. Chrysotile and amosite were more cytotoxic than crocidolite. Among man-made mineral fibers, ceramic fiber was the most cytotoxic to alveolar macrophage. The viability of alveolar macrophage exposed to asbestos was markedly decreased compared with that of man-made mineral fiver at the same concentration. 5. There was the significant negative correlation between the production of .OH and the viability of alveolar macrophages. From these results, we can conclude that the production of ·OH in vitro was strongly correlated with the cytotoxicity of alveolar macrophage and the lipid peroxidation in mineral fiber-exposed erythrocyte. And we documented that man-made mineral fiber could generate .OH in vitro less than asbestos.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in hemodialysis patients

        Lee,,Yeon,Joo,Oh,,Il,Hwan,Baek,,Hee,Jun,Lee,,Chang,Hwa,Lee,,Sang,Sun The Korean Nutrition Society 2015 Nutrition Research and Practice Vol.9 No.2

        BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is common in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to identify whether or not sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake have effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The objective was to identify the main determinants of serum vitamin D status in the study subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 47 HD patients (19 males and 28 females) was performed. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and $1,25(OH)_2D$ levels between August and September 2012 and analyzed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HD patients. To evaluate the determinants of serum 25(OH)D levels, we surveyed dietary vitamin D intake, degree of sun exposure, and outdoor activities. To compare biological variables, serum 25(OH)D was stratified as below 15 ng/ml or above 15 ng/ml. RESULTS: Mean 25(OH)D and $1,25(OH)_2D$ levels were $13.5{\pm}5.8ng/ml$ and $20.6{\pm}11.8pg/ml$, respectively. The proportions of serum 25(OH)D deficiency (< 15 ng/ml), insufficiency (15-< 30 ng/ml), and sufficiency (${\geq}30ng/ml$) in subjects were 72.4%, 23.4%, and 4.3%, respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in female patients was 78.6%, whereas that in males was 63.2% (P = 0.046). Vitamin D intake and sun exposure time were not significantly different between the two stratified serum 25(OH)D levels. Dietary intake of vitamin D did not contribute to increased serum 25(OH)D levels in HD patients. The main effective factors affecting serum 25(OH)D status were found to be the sun exposure and active outdoor exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovitaminosis D is common in HD patients and is higher in females than in males. Sun exposure is the most important determinant of serum 25(OH)D status in HD patients.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in hemodialysis patients

        Yeon,Joo,Lee,Il,Hwan,Oh,Hee,Jun,Baek,Chang,Hwa,Lee,Sang,Sun,Lee 한국영양학회 2015 Nutrition Research and Practice Vol.9 No.2

        BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is common in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to identify whether or not sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake have effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The objective was to identify the main determinants of serum vitamin D status in the study subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 47 HD patients (19 males and 28 females) was performed. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels between August and September 2012 and analyzed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HD patients. To evaluate the determinants of serum 25(OH)D levels, we surveyed dietary vitamin D intake, degree of sun exposure, and outdoor activities. To compare biological variables, serum 25(OH)D was stratified as below 15 ng/ml or above 15 ng/ml. RESULTS: Mean 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were 13.5 ± 5.8 ng/ml and 20.6 ± 11.8 pg/ml, respectively. The proportions of serum 25(OH)D deficiency (< 15 ng/ml), insufficiency (15-< 30 ng/ml), and sufficiency (≥ 30 ng/ml) in subjects were 72.4%, 23.4%, and 4.3%, respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in female patients was 78.6%, whereas that in males was 63.2% (P = 0.046). Vitamin D intake and sun exposure time were not significantly different between the two stratified serum 25(OH)D levels. Dietary intake of vitamin D did not contribute to increased serum 25(OH)D levels in HD patients. The main effective factors affecting serum 25(OH)D status were found to be the sun exposure and active outdoor exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovitaminosis D is common in HD patients and is higher in females than in males. Sun exposure is the most important determinant of serum 25(OH)D status in HD patients.

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        Recycling of limestone fines using Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>- and Ba(OH)<sub>2</sub>-activated slag systems for eco-friendly concrete brick production

        Yum,,Woo,Sung,Jeong,,Yeonung,Song,,Heamin,Oh,,Jae,Eun Elsevier 2018 Construction and Building Materials Vol.185 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>This study explored the possibility of using limestone fines (LF) as a supplementary material in activated slag binder systems using two types of activators (i.e., 10 wt% of Ca(OH)<SUB>2</SUB> or 10 wt% of Ba(OH)<SUB>2</SUB>) and investigated the interactions of the activators with LF in each binder system through strength testing, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Using these binders, concrete brick samples containing LF were also made and examined for possible industrial applications. Although the influences of the LF addition on the strength, dissolution degree of the slag, reaction products, and pore-size distribution depended on the type and dosage of the activator, the addition was generally advantageous for all these aspects in both types of activations. The concrete brick made of 20 wt% LF using the Ba(OH)<SUB>2</SUB> activation fulfilled the Korean standard requirements of strength and water absorption for concrete bricks, and it also satisfied the criteria of the leaching test for possible toxic elements.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Limestone fines (LF) was studied as a supplementary material in activated slags. </LI> <LI> Main activators for slag were Ca(OH)<SUB>2</SUB> or Ba(OH)<SUB>2</SUB>. </LI> <LI> At early ages, the use of LF significantly improved strength in both activations. </LI> <LI> The use of LF significantly changed reaction products of Ba(OH)<SUB>2</SUB> activation. </LI> <LI> However, the use LF did not alter reaction products of Ca(OH)<SUB>2</SUB> activation. </LI> </UL> </P>

      • KCI등재

        만성 콩팥병 환자에서 추정 사구체 여과율에 따른 25-Hydroxyvitamin D의 특성

        고정희 ( Jung Hee Koh ), 곽임수 ( Ihm Soo Kwak ), 송상헌 ( Sang Heon Song ), 이수봉 ( Soo Bong Lee ), 이하린 ( Harin Rhee ), 성은영 ( Eun Young Seong ), 박창준 ( Chang Jun Park ), 김태균 ( Tae Kyun Kim ), 오상보 ( Sang Bo Oh ) 대한내과학회 2012 대한내과학회지 Vol.83 No.6

        Background/Aims: Accumulating data suggest that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, comprehensive data are lacking for Koreans. The aim of this study was to survey vitamin D deficiency among patients with CKD in Korea and to identify the relationships among various factors. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 444 patients who were divided into four subgroups by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for comparisons of mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and other parameters. In addition, non-dialyzed patients were categorized into four groups based on 25(OH)D levels (<10, 10-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 ng/mL), and risk factors for severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) were investigated. Results: Of patients with an eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, 43% (34/79) showed severe 25(OH)D deficiency, and the mean 25(OH)D level was 11.7±5.3 ng/mL. In CKD3 group, 53.2% (41/77) showed severe 25(OH)D deficiency, with a mean level of 11.3±7.2 ng/mL. In CKD4 group, 53.3% (49/92) had severe 25(OH)D deficiency, with a mean level of 11.0±6.2 ng/mL. Approximately 71% (139/196) of patients in CKD5 group showed severe deficiency, and the mean level was 9.2±5.9 ng/mL. Severe 25(OH)D deficiency was affected by winter season, renal function, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The serum parathyroid hormone level was inversely correlated with the 25(OH)D level, such that 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL were associated with a steep increase in parathyroid hormone. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the Korean population. Few patients met a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration, even in the early stages of CKD. Our data suggest that 25(OH)D level of 20 ng/mL is a threshold for a rapid increase in parathyroid hormone levels. (Korean J Med 2012;83:740-751)

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        Recovery and recycling of Zr(OH)<sub>4</sub> with a ZrCl<sub>4</sub> coagulant from waste of the zirconium pentahydroxide [Zr(OH)<sub>5</sub> <sup>−</sup>] displacement technique

        Cho,,Joon-Hyung,Jeon,,Soo-Bin,Kang,,Min-Kyoung,Kim,,Jin-Seop,Cho,,Sang-Won,Oh,,Kwang-Joong Elsevier 2017 Separation and purification technology Vol.184 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Ion exchange technology is the most effective and economical to remove heat stable salts (HSS) in CO<SUB>2</SUB> absorption processes. However, the disadvantage of high waste generation remains an unsolved problem. This study attempted to reduce the amount of waste generated during the Zr(OH)<SUB>5</SUB> <SUP>−</SUP> regeneration process through resource recovery by using ZrCl<SUB>4</SUB> coagulant, then recycling the recovered Zr(OH)<SUB>4</SUB> precipitate to produce Zr(OH)<SUB>5</SUB> <SUP>−</SUP> regenerant. The experimental results showed a waste coagulant efficiency of about 75%. The coagulation mechanism was suggested based on the conductivity and zeta potential analysis. The recovered Zr(OH)<SUB>4</SUB> had no differences in terms of chemical composition and regeneration efficiency, when compared with virgin material. These results indicate that the recovery and recycling of Zr(OH)<SUB>4</SUB> from the waste stream using ZrCl<SUB>4</SUB> as a coagulant reduced a large amount of the waste generated from the ion exchange process.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Reduction efficiency using ZrCl<SUB>4</SUB> coagulant from ion exchange waste is about 75.0%. </LI> <LI> Coagulation mechanism of four stages with respect to the coagulant dose is proposed. </LI> <LI> Recovery efficiency of hydroxide, as Zr(OH)<SUB>4</SUB>, from the waste is about 99.2%. </LI> <LI> The recovered Zr(OH)<SUB>4</SUB> has no difference in regeneration efficiency of virgin material. </LI> </UL> </P>

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