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Jean Rhys's many short stories, published in the 1960s and 1970s, are set in the turn of the century and the early 20th century when the British empire had spurted to educate the British people to embody its imperial ideology. Among them, “Pioneers, Oh Pioneers” and “Fishy Waters,” included in Sleep If Off, Lady (1976), capture the moment that British colonists living in Roseau of Dominica get isolated and deteriorated inside their soul. The moment is revealed through colonists's encounter with strangers such as Mr Ramage in “Pioneers, Oh Pioneers” and Jimmy Longa in “Fishy Waters.” Zygmunt Bauman explains in Modernity and Ambivalence that strangers are, in principle, unplaceable in between the subject and the other. Thus strangers are the ones that can question the very principle of the opposition of the subject and the other which should be clearly placed under the social norms of the European colonialists. This paper examines how the British colonists presented in these two stories respond to these strangers. Rhys portrays the white colonial society through Rosalie's point of view, a little girl aged 9, to reveal its blindness while applying the detective narrative in “Fishy Waters” to expose its doubleness. The narrative of each story interestingly reveals the monstrosity of British colonists in the process of investigating hybrid and seemingly monstrous strangers. In doing so, Rhys criticizes the British imperialism by disclosing the way in which the intolerance of anything different and unplaceable lead people to violence and blindness.
서구 독자들은 제3세계의 텍스트를 대하여 여성들이 현실에서처럼 텍스트에서도 당연히 성이나 인종적 편견에 의해 이중, 삼중으로 억압되어 있을 거라는 추측을 흔히 한다. 탈식민주의론의 선두주자인 스피박조차도 이러한 선입견에서 자유롭지 못하다. 스피박에 의하면, 제3세계의 식민 주체를 일반화시킬 경우, 제3세계 여성들이 그들의 사회에서 갖는 금기나 저항의 의미를 간과하게 되고 가부장제 사회에서 여성의 일탈 가능성을 보지 못하게 된다. 제1세계와 제3세계의 대립구도뿐만 아니라 성과 계급의 사회범주에 따른 차별성을 분명히 해야만 같은 여성이라도 제1, 제3세계의 여성들이 어떻게 다른 억압의 메커니즘에 놓이는 지 알 수 있다. 이처럼 페미니즘과 탈식민주의 이론이 교차하는 스피박의 제3세계 텍스트 읽기는 현재 상당히 보편화된 독법에 속한다. 그러나 복잡하고 노련하게 텍스트를 읽어내는 스피박의 글도 제3세계 여성들이 가장 억압된 존재들이라는 인식을 전제하고 있다. 짐바브웨의 한 소설가에 의해 쓰여진 소설 『뼈들』(Bones)은 제3세계 여성들의 억압을 기정사실화 하는 시각이 얼마나 서구 중심적이고 지식인 중심적일 수 있는지, 다시 말해 진보적이라고 자부해온 탈식민주의 이론들이 얼마나 제1세계 중심적 시각에 편향되어 있는 지 보여준다. 이 소설에서 여성들은 서구제국주의와 가부장제의 모순에 의해 억압되고 타자화된 객체들이 아니라 그 복잡한 모순들을 극복할 수 있는 탈식민적 주체들이다. 이 여성들은 모성애라는 전통적인 가부장제 이데올로기를 인식론의 차원에서 서구중심의 이분법적 사고를 넘어설 수 있는 새로운 가능성으로 읽어내는 데에서 당당하게 주체성을 확립하고 가부장제를 무장해제 한다.
The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of career and vocational(transitional) education between teachers and parents of special education classes in elementary, rniddle, and high school in Cheonan and Asan. The questionnaire consisted of four domains of career and vocational(transitional) education such as demographic background, perceptions, planning and practice, and improvement. 1n conclusion, this study discussed the challenges and its breakthroughs toward career and vocational education for special needs classrooms, such as positive involvement of both teachers and parents in vocational education of special needs children, and teachers' preparation for different types of special needs and individualized education, irnplementation of related education by bot teachers and parents involved in vocational curriculum, and establishment of partnership among affiliated institutions in the community. lastly, stimulating an environment where understanding of vocational education and its implementation can be naturally carried out from the elementary school level can be highly suggested as a way of better special needs education
Isolated ACTH deficiency is an uncommon disorder, which is defined by low cortisol production with low or normal plasma ACTH levels and no other pituitary abnormalities. We report five new cases of this disorder, and summarize the clinical and hormonal features of 8 previously reported cases in Korea plus 5 new cases. 1) The clinical manifestations of isolated ACTH deficiency are variable, non-specific and similar to those seen in adrenocortical insufficiency of any cause, the age of patients ranged from 21 to 66 years old with an average age of 46 years, and the male to female ratio was 10:3. 2) Hyponatremia and hypoglycemia were commmon laboratory findings, so the presence of unexplained hyponatremia or hypoglycemia should always warrant consideration of the diagnosis of isolated ACTH deficiency. 3) 3 of 13 patients accompanied by empty sella suggesting selective destruction of pituitary ACTH producing cells. 4) ACTH response to exogenous CRH or vasopressin was not elicited in all tested cases, suggesting pituitary disorders. 5) Most patients showed dramatic response with oral predinisone. In conclusion, when there are unexplained general weakness, fatigue, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, hypoglycemia, or hyponatremia, isolated ACTH deficiency should be excluded. Immunologic and pathologic studies, and hormonal evolution with glucocorticoid treatment are needed to understand the pathogenesis of isolated ACTH deficiency (J Kor Soc Endocrinol 14:568-577, 1999).
A Reports were done on 3 cases of proriasis, 1 case of chronic urticaria which were admition and treated by fasting therapy in Dept. surgery, opthalmology & otolaryngology, college of Oriental Medicine, Kyungsan University, Pohang, Korea, from March 1999 to October 2000. The results were as follows: 1. In the case chronic urticaria, symptom and sign(jtching, wheal, erythema), except of pigment, were showed conciderable improvement. 2. In the case proriasis, it is different of person, bellow 5cm sized erythematous popules were disappeared during fasting therapy, above 5cm sized erythematous papules and plaque were improved by using medication after fasting therapy. Silver-white colored scales was improved about $50-60\%$, itching was disappeared during fasting therapy. 3. After fasting therapy there was a recurrence, but about $40-50\%$ decreased symptoms were showed. 4. Besides upper diagnosis and treatment based on overall of symptoms and signs considered by documentary investigation, medications by Sasang prescription also can be expected good treatment effect.
This paper examines Lawrence's sense of place, represented by his idea of “spirit of place,” and the meaning of placelessness presented in Birds, Beasts, and Flowers. Although most Lawrence critics have mentioned that these poems were written from 1920 to 1923 when he left England for long, few critics have paid attention to how his geographical migration influenced his poems written during this period. Most analyses of these poems are focused on Lawrence's sensitivity and insight on inhuman otherness distinguished in this poetry. Instead of highlighting inhuman otherness revealed in Birds, Beasts, and Flowers, this paper tries to explore how our awareness of Lawrence's sense of place affects our understanding of his poems. In the second section, I will examine how Lawrence's sense of place is different from other modernist writers like T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, and Virginia Woolf, and why place was the most urgent matter for Lawrence after the World War I. Third section focuses on how Lawrence's sensitivity to place can be understood in the philosophical and ecological senses, and what is the meaning of home and homelessness presented in “Spirits Summoned West” and “The Red Woolf.” This paper examines Lawrence's sense of place, represented by his idea of “spirit of place,” and the meaning of placelessness presented in Birds, Beasts, and Flowers. Although most Lawrence critics have mentioned that these poems were written from 1920 to 1923 when he left England for long, few critics have paid attention to how his geographical migration influenced his poems written during this period. Most analyses of these poems are focused on Lawrence's sensitivity and insight on inhuman otherness distinguished in this poetry. Instead of highlighting inhuman otherness revealed in Birds, Beasts, and Flowers, this paper tries to explore how our awareness of Lawrence's sense of place affects our understanding of his poems. In the second section, I will examine how Lawrence's sense of place is different from other modernist writers like T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, and Virginia Woolf, and why place was the most urgent matter for Lawrence after the World War I. Third section focuses on how Lawrence's sensitivity to place can be understood in the philosophical and ecological senses, and what is the meaning of home and homelessness presented in “Spirits Summoned West” and “The Red Woolf.”
The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions and needs of elementary school teachers regarding practical arts education program provided by National Universities of Education. A survey was conducted to find out what teachers expected from national universities of education regarding practical arts programs. The subjects in this study were 320 teachers in charge of fifth and sixth graders from 34 elementary schools in the city of Daejeon and south Chungcheong province. This study revealed: (1) among practical arts electives of general courses, the teachers showed the higher needs for home science economics; (2) there was a small gap between their needs for practical arts teaching pedagogy and for content areas; (3) concerning how to instruct content areas of practical arts, more than half of respondents found it necessary to teach every area and placed more stock in practice than in theory; (4) the female teachers gave more weight to some courses related home economics, whereas the male teachers attached greater importance to agricultural science; (5) the type of university they graduated from made a difference to their needs for practical arts teaching and learning methods, teaching material development, home economics/consumer education, and theory/practice (and)/management of horticulture, environment-friendly interior and landscape architecture; and (6) the teachers who had majored in practical arts put higher value on practical arts teaching/learning method and teaching material development than the others who hadn't.
최근 수 밀리 초 이내 고속 처리가 요구되는 실시간 모바일 응용 서비스들이 등장함에 따라, 서버를 사용자에게 보다 근접한 위치에 배치하는 다중 접근 엣지 컴퓨팅 (MEC)이 제안되고 있다. MEC의 구조적 특징으로 인한 통신 저지연성은 모바일 서비스의 응답 속도를 다소 개선했지만, 최근 연산 집중적인 실시간 서비스의 증가 추세로 연산 가속화를 통한 추가적인 응답 속도의 개선이 요구된다. 본고에서는 MEC 서비스 가속을 위해 저지연, 저전력 특성 및 로직 재구성 가능한 특성을 갖는 FPGA 가속기의 MEC 서버 내 도입을 제안한다. 특히 MEC 서버에서 FPGA 가속기 사용을 위한 FPGA 가상화의 필요성을 제기하고, MEC의 구조적 특성을 고려한 FPGA 가상화 플랫폼을 제안한다. 제안된 FPGA 가상화 기술은 FPGA의 Multi-tenancy 지원을 통해 MEC의 제한된 자원을 효율적으로 활용할 뿐만 아니라, OpneCL 프로그래밍 모델 지원을 통해 MEC의 표준 인터페이스 요구에 대응하여 MEC에 적합한 FPGA 가상화 플랫폼을 제안한다.