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      • KCI등재

        Operating lines for plug-in hybrid turbo charger systems meeting LEV III evaporative gas regulations

        오영규,Sung Wook Park 대한기계학회 2021 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.35 No.8

        In 2020 the California Air Resources Board (CARB) implemented even more stringent regulation of vehicle emissions, its low-emission vehicle III (LEV III) program. In a (P)HEV T-GDI vehicle, the vehicle operates in EV driving mode when the engine is off, making it similarly difficult to comply with evaporative gas regulations. Automotive OEM strategy development to reduce vehicle evaporative gas and exhaust gas is in progress as these new emissions regulations are being implemented. Unlike in a naturally aspired engine, in a turbo gasoline direct injection (T-GDI) engine, the main operating area is the turbo boosting area. It operates in the positive pressure area rather than the negative pressure area, making it difficult to meet the requirements of the new evaporative gas regulationsI. The (P)HEV T-GDI characteristics showed the evaporative gas standards of LEV III, as well as regulations on CO 2 , fuel efficiency, and exhaust gas. 2.0 T-GDI single purge system vehicles showed 1.8 times engine operation time test results satisfied with evaporative gas test regulation values. Additionally, exhaust gas emissions in hot mode showed that CO(g/mile) affects 2.0 L T-GDI vehicles 2~3 times more than 3.0 L V6 T-GDI dual purge system vehicles. Fuel efficiency test results, confirming that the 3.0 V6 had about 15 % FTP, 20 % HWY, 18 % US06 better fuel efficiency compared to the 2.0 L T-GDI vehicles. Furthermore, the properties of the operating lines optimized for two plug-in hybrid turbo charger systems to assess whether they can meet the evaporative gas standards of LEV III, as well as regulations on CO 2 , fuel efficiency, and exhaust gas. The 2.0 L T-GDI vehicle bears fuel economy loss, increases the engine operating time, and responds to the regulation of evaporative gas, and the 3.0 V6 confirms that the engine operating time, fuel economy, exhaust gas, and evaporative gas are optimized. To respond to LEV III evaporative gas regulations, 2.0 L T-GDI PHEV vehicles take longer engine operation time, fuel economy loss, and respond to evaporative gas, CO 2 , emission regulations, 3.0 L V6 T-GDI PHEV vehicles confirmed that engine operation time, fuel economy, exhaust gas, and evaporative gas were optimized. They can meet the evaporative gas standards of LEV III, as well as regulations on CO 2 , fuel efficiency, and exhaust gas.

      • KCI등재

        Microsurgery Versus Endovascular Treatment - Which Is Adequate for Initial Treatment of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Case Series

        오영규,허연,전상룡,노성우,박진훈 대한척추신경외과학회 2021 대한척추신경외과학회지 Vol.18 No.2

        Objective: Considering the adverse natural history of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (sDAVF), clinical outcomes may be worsened if the initial occlusive trial does not achieve complete fistula occlusion. We aimed to analyze the initial success rate of microsurgery and embolization and confirm the effects of initial treatment success on the clinical outcomes of sDAVF patients. In addition, we investigated the factors associated with initial treatment failure. Methods: A total of 38 patients treated for sDAVF at a single institution over a 14-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes according to the initial treatment modality were quantitatively analyzed. Demographic characteristics and angioarchitecture data were evaluated to identify factors associated with initial treatment failure. Results: In the study population, 34 patients underwent embolization as the initial treatment, and complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved in 13 patients (38%). However, all patients who underwent microsurgery showed complete fistula occlusion. Among patients with initial treatment success, gait and micturition were improved with statistical significance (p<0.001 each). However, in cases of initial treatment failure, only mild improvements in gait and micturition were observed, which were not statistically significant (p=0.097 and p=0.375, respectively). A narrow feeding artery diameter (p=0.007) and embolization of the artery only (p=0.002) were identified as factors associated with initial treatment failure. Conclusion: To achieve symptomatic improvement and prevent neurological deterioration due to recurrence, the initial definite occlusion of the fistula is important. Despite advances in endovascular techniques, microsurgical occlusion is still superior in terms of initial complete obliteration.

      • KCI등재

        NetTcpBinding을 이용한 OPC Server 와 WCF Client간 데이터 통신 시스템 구현

        오영규,김재웅,김달중 한국지식정보기술학회 2018 한국지식정보기술학회 논문지 Vol.13 No.6

        Recent smart factories use OPC as their common communication mode to collect data from the manufacturing facilities. Data collected from OPC Server can be used for monitoring facilities, remote control, data sharing between facilities and equipment using OPC Client. However, the OPC client of OPC Classic is based on COM/DCOM, and has difficulty in firewall setup and security problems when communicating with remote clients. Additionally, the expansion of OPC server data to other platforms is required by the emergence of smart phones, but COM/DCOM is dependent on Windows platform. In this article, we have designed and implemented a remote data communication server/client using WCF as a way to demonstrate functions similar to the OPC UA communication system in the early OPC DA communication system. We have developed a system that can transfer collected data from PLC to remote WCF client, which data gets collected through OPC communication that is for automatic control and monitoring of industrial plant using WCF server. This study is the implementation of a model that can integrate and control PLC data from distributed production sites. This study introduces a model that can be applied to a system that has a limitation to introduce OPC UA, and it implements a method to collect and manage centralized PLC data of distributed production sites. 최근의 스마트 팩토리는 제조현장의 생산설비로부터 발생되는 데이터를 수집하기 위한 방식으로 OPC 통신 방식을 일반적으로 사용 한다. OPC Server에서 수집된 데이터는 OPC Client를 이용하여 설비의 모니터링, 원격제어, 설비와 설비 간 데이터 공유 등의 기능으로 활용 할 수 있다. 하지만, OPC Classic의 OPC Client는 COM/DCOM 기반이어서 원격지 클라이언트들과 통신 시 방화벽 Setup의 난점[15], 보안문제 등을 안고 있다. 더불어, 스마트폰의 등장으로 OPC Server 의 데이터를 타 플랫폼으로 공유하는 확장 기능도 요구되고 있으나, COM/DCOM 은 윈도우 플랫폼에 종속적이다. 본 논문에서는 초창기 OPC Classic의 OPC Client 통신 방식으로 구성되어 있는 시스템을 OPC UA통신 방식과 유사한 기능을 발휘 할 수 있는 방안으로 WCF를 이용한 원격지 데이터 통신 서버/클라이언트를 설계하여 실험 하였다. 산업플랜트의 자동제어 및 감시에 사용하는 PLC로부터 OPC통신을 통해 수집한 데이터를 WCF서버와 동기화 시켜 원격지 WCF클라이언트로 전송하는 시스템을 연구 개발 하였다. 이러한 연구는 OPC UA를 도입하기에 한계성이 있는 시스템에 적용 할 수 있는 모델로 분산된 생산현장의 PLC데이터를 수집하여 중앙에서 통합 관리 할 수 있는 방안을 구현 한 것이다.

      • KCI등재

        성장-변형률법을 이용한 신뢰성 기반 형상 최적화

        오영규,박재용,임민규,박재용,한석영,Oh, Young-Kyu,Park, Jae-Yong,Im, Min-Gyu,Park, Jae-Yong,Han, Seog-Young 한국생산제조학회 2010 한국생산제조학회지 Vol.25 No.5

        This paper presents a reliability-based shape optimization (RBSO) using the growth-strain method. An actual design involves uncertain conditions such as material property, operational load, Poisson's ratio and dimensional variation. The purpose of the RBSO is to consider the variations of probabilistic constraint and performances caused by uncertainties. In this study, the growth-strain method was applied to shape optimization of reliability analysis. Even though many papers for reliability-based shape optimization in mathematical programming method and ESO (Evolutionary Structural Optimization) were published, the paper for the reliability-based shape optimization using the growth-strain method has not been applied yet. Growth-strain method is applied to performance measure approach (PMA), which has probabilistic constraints that are formulated in terms of the reliability index, is adopted to evaluate the probabilistic constraints in the change of average mises stress. Numerical examples are presented to compare the DO with the RBSO. The results of design example show that the RBSO model is more reliable than deterministic optimization. It was verified that the reliability-based shape optimization using growth-strain method are very effective for general structure. The purpose of this study is to improve structure's safety considering probabilistic variable.

      • KCI등재

        변위 제한 조건하에서의 신뢰성 기반 형상 최적화

        오영규,박재용,임민규,박재용,한석영,Oh, Young-Kyu,Park, Jae-Yong,Im, Min-Gyu,Park, Jae-Yong,Han, Seog-Young 한국생산제조학회 2010 한국생산제조학회지 Vol.25 No.5

        This paper presents a reliability-based shape optimization (RBSO) using the evolutionary structural optimization (ESO). An actual design involves uncertain conditions such as material property, operational load, poisson's ratio and dimensional variation. The deterministic optimization (DO) is obtained without considering of uncertainties related to the uncertainty parameters. However, the RBSO can consider the uncertainty variables because it has the probabilistic constraints. In order to determine whether the probabilistic constraint is satisfied or not, simulation techniques and approximation methods are developed. In this paper, the reliability-based shape design optimization method is proposed by utilization the reliability index approach (RIA), performance measure approach (PMA), single-loop single-vector (SLSV), adaptive-loop (ADL) are adopted to evaluate the probabilistic constraint. In order to apply the ESO method to the RBSO, a sensitivity number is defined as the change of strain energy in the displacement constraint. Numerical examples are presented to compare the DO with the RBSO. The results of design example show that the RBSO model is more reliable than deterministic optimization.

      • KCI등재

        응력 제한조건하의 신뢰성 기반 형상 최적설계

        오영규,박재용,임민규,박재용,한석영,Oh, Young-Kyu,Park, Jae-Yong,Im, Min-Gyu,Park, Jae-Yong,Han, Seog-Young 한국생산제조학회 2010 한국생산제조학회지 Vol.25 No.6

        The objective of this study is to integrate reliability analysis into shape optimization problem using the evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) in the application example. Reliability-based shape optimization is formulated as volume minimization problem with probabilistic stress constraint under minimization max. von Mises stress and allow stress. Young's modulus, external load and thickness are considered as uncertain variables. In order to compute reliability index, four methods, i.e., reliability index approach (RIA), performance measure approach (PMA), single-loop singlevector (SLSV) and adaptive-loop (ADL), are used. Reliability-based shape optimization design process is conducted to obtain optimal shape satisfying max. von Mises stress and reliability index constraints with the above four methods, and then each result is compared with respect to numerical stability and computing time.

      • ESO기법을 이용한 신뢰성 기반 형상 최적설계

        오영규,박재용,황승민,임민규,박재용,한석영 한국공작기계학회 2009 한국공작기계학회 춘계학술대회논문집 Vol.2009 No.-

        This paper presents a reliability-based shape optimization (RBSO) using the evolutionary structural optimization (ESO). An actual design involves uncertain conditions such as material property, operational load and dimensional variation. The deterministic optimization (DO) is obtained without considering uncertainties related to uncertainty parameters. However, the RBSO can consider the uncertainty variables because it has the probabilistic constraints. In order to determine whether the probabilistic constraint is satisfied or not, simulation techniques and approximation methods are developed. In this paper, the reliability-based shape design optimization method is proposed by utilizing the reliability index approach (RIA), performance measure approach (PMA), single-loop single-vector (SLSV), adaptive-loop (AOL) are adopted to evaluate the probabilistic constraint. In order to apply the ESO method to the RBSO, a sensitivity number is defined as the change in the displacement. Numerical examples are presented to compare the DO with the RBSO. The results of design example show that the RBSO model more reliable than deterministic shape optimization.

      • 차량용 토크암과 브라켓의 신뢰성 기반 형상 최적화

        오영규(Young-Kyu Oh),박재용(Jae-Yong Park),한석영(Seog-Young Han) 한국자동차공학회 2010 한국자동차공학회 부문종합 학술대회 Vol.2010 No.5

        This paper presents a reliability-based shape optimization (RBSO) using the growth-strain method. An actual design involves uncertain conditions such as material property, operational load, Poisson"s ratio and dimensional variation. The purpose of the RBSO is to consider the variations of probabilistic constraint and performances caused by uncertainties. In this study, the growth-strain method was applied to shape optimization of reliability analysis. Growth-strain method is applied to performance measure approach (PMA), which has probabilistic constraints that are formulated in terms of the reliability index, is adopted to evaluate the probabilistic constraints in the change of average von Mises stress. Numerical examples are presented to compare the DO with the RBSO. The results of design example show that the RBSO model is more reliable than deterministic optimization. It was verified that the reliability-based shape optimization using growth-strain method are very effective for general structure. The purpose of this study is to improve structure"s safety considering probabilistic variable.

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