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This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings?growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth.
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) have mutualistic symbiosis with plants and thus efforts have been placed on application of these symbiotic relationships to agricultural and environmental fields. In this study, AM fungi were collected from 25 sites growing with 16 host plant species in Korea and cultured with Sorghum bicolor in greenhouse condition. AM fungal spores were extracted and identified using both morphological and molecular methods. Using morphological characters, total 15 morpho-speices were identified. DNA was extracted from single spore of AM fungi and a partial region on 18S rDNA was amplified using nested PCR with AM fungal specific primers AML1/AML2. A total of 36 18S rDNA sequences were analyzed for phylogenetic analysis and 15 groups of AM fungi were identified using both morphological and molecular data of spores. Among the species, 4 species, Archaeospora leptoticha, Scutellospora castanea, S. cerradensis, S. weresubiae were described for the first time in Korea and two species in Glomus and a species in Gigaspora were not identified. Morphological and molecular identification of AM fungal spores in this study would help identify AM fungal community colonizing roots.
The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) was investigated in cultivated and natural fieldsites of Chungbuk, Korea. Soils were collected from rhizosphere of Sorghum bicolor, Fagopyrum esculentum and Glycine max in cultivated sites, and of Miscanthus sinensis, Glycine soja and Lespedeza cuneata in natural sites. of AM fungi were significantly lower in the arable sites. While only AM fungal spores belong to Glomus and Acaulospora were found in arable field sites, more diverse fungal spores including Gigasporaceae were found in natural grasslands. AM fungal spore composition did not significantly difer among crop plant species. Results suggest that the agricultural practices were significantly influenced on AM fungal comunity structures and mycorrhizal developments.
Morphological observation of roots and molecular technique were used to investigate the symbiotic relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and ginseng roots. Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng, was collected from 8 sites in Korea. Colonization pattern of AM fungi in ginseng roots was determined as an Arum type under light microscopes. Nested PCR using AM fungal specific primers was employed to amplify a partial region on 18s rDNA of AM fungi from the root extracted mixed DNA. The amplified DNA was cloned and analyzed by random fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with restriction enzymes, AluI, HinfI and AsuC21. One from each RFLP pattern was selected for sequencing. A total 16 clones were sequenced and identified as 2 species of AM fungi; Paraglomus brasilianum and Glomus spurcum. Paramglomus brasilianum was found from most of the ginseng roots, in this syudy suggesting that this species of AM fungi could have specific relationship with the ginseng root. Possible roles of AM fungal species in ginseng roots are discussed.
Growth responses of Zea mays and Glycine max to colonization by mixture of combination of three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, two species of Glomus and a species of Scutellospora were compared. In Zea mays, plants inoculated with single species of AM fungi showed significantly higher in dry weight than non-mycorrhizal plant for all three AM fungal species. Also, growth of plants inoculated with spores of two species of AM fungi was significantly higher than non-mycorrhizal control except for plants inoculated with two Glomus species. When three species of AM fungi were inoculated, the plants showed the highest growth. In Glycine max, plants with single AM fungal species inoculation were not significantly different in plant growth from nonmycorrhizal plants. When the plants were inoculated with combination of two or more AM fungal species, their growth significantly increased compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. In both plant species, mycorrhizal root colonization by Scutellospora species was significantly lower than by Glomus species.
Vegetation established through the natural process, such as Quercus mongolica, Pinus densiflora,Q. variabilis, Q. acutissima, Carpinus laxiflora, Q. aliena and Q. serrata communities and artificially introduced vegetation, which are composed of Larix leptolepis and P. rigida plantations, are established in the mountainous land of the Mt. Songnisan National Park. On the other hand, the developed lands, which are consisted of agricultural fields, residential areas, commercial areas related to tourism, etc. appear in the lowland around streams. Based on the spatial distribution of vegetation, the southern district, which is attributed to Naesongni-myun by administrative system, showed higher natural degree and vegetation diversity. However, most of the other districts, which are attributed to Cheongcheon- and Chilseong-myuns, are covered with the Korean red pine forest, a product of artificial influence, and plantation also occupied higher percentage. Thereby both vegetation diversity and natural degree are lowering. A result of ordination by DCA showed that sands tended to be arranged by depending on the topographic condition. Species diversity of plant communities was higher in broad-leaved stands rather than in coniferous ones and in stands of the early stage than in ones of the late stage. The result of analysis on vegetation dynamics implied that vegetation of this region would be dominated by Carpinus laxiflora, Quercus mongolica and Pinus densiflora communities in the future. However, considered occurrence the of disturbance and response of vegetation on that, this estimation may different somewhat from an actual situation. Conservation strategies of the Mt. Songnisan National Park were discussed in viewpoints of landscape ecology, and conservation of major plant communities and biodiversity. 속리산 국립공원의 산지에는 신갈나무군락, 소나무군락, 굴참나무군락, 상수리나무군락, 서어나무군락, 갈참나무군락 및 졸참나무군락의 자연적 과정을 통해 성립된 식생과 일본잎갈나무 조림지와 리기다소나무 조림지로 이루어진 인위적으로 조성된 식생이 성립하고 있다. 한편, 하천 주변의 저지대에는 농경지, 주거 지, 상업시설 등으로 이루어진 개발지가 분포하고 있다. 식생의 공간적 분포에 의하면, 행정구역상 충북 보은군 내속리면과 경북 상주시 화북면에 속하는 공원구역 남부 약 1/3 지역은 자연성과 식생의 다양성이 높았지만 청천면 및 칠성면에 속하는 나머지 지역은 그 대부분을 소나무림이 차지하고 조림지가 차지하는 비율도 높아 식생의 다양성과 자연성이 모두 낮았다. 조사된 식분을 서열법으로 처리한 결과, 식분의 배열은 고도,사면 등의 지형요인과 그것에서 비롯된 수분요인에 의해 지배되는 경향이었다. 주요 목본식물의 직경 급별 빈도분포를 분석하여 식생의 동태를 분석한 결과, 향후 이 지역의 식생은 서어나무군락, 신갈나무군락 및 소 나무군락이 중심을 이루는 식생으로 재편될 전망이다. 그러나 교란의 발생과 그것에 대한 식생의 반응을 고려 하면, 이러한 판단은 실제와 다소 차이를 보일 가능성도 있다. 이상의 결과를 종합한 속리산 국립공원의 보전전략이 경관생태, 주요 식물군락의 보전 및 생물다양성 보전의 관점에서 검토되었다.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were observed in Botrychium ternatum native in Korea. The partial small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal DNA gene from the fern roots was amplified with primers AM1/NS31. Nucleotides sequence analysis of the clones revealed that two fragments were close to Glomus proliferum and G. sinuosum. The other three DNA fragments were close to those of G. proliferum with the relatively low similarities (92~95%) and speculated to be originated from three different species of Glomus (GLA006, GLA016, and GLA032). Five different nucleotide sequences close to three AM fungal species were found in the roots of B. ternatum native in Korea.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant community structure in experimental microcosms containing an assemblage of five species of plants (Oenothera odorata, Plantago asiatica, Trifolium repens, Isodon japonicas and Aster yomena). Leaves of Sasa borealis, Potentilla fragarioides, and Viola mandshurica were collected in Chungbuk, Korea. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized leaves and identified to species level using molecular and morphological techniques. Four isolates of the endophytic fungi were inoculated to the leaves of host plants in the microcosms. Also, three species of AMF spores were extracted from pure cultures and the mixture of the three species inoculated to the roots of the plants. After four months of growth in a green house, effects of both symbiotic fungi on plant species diversity, community composition and productivity were examined. The plant species diversity showed significant differences with inoculation of the symbiotic fungi. Results indicate that AMF significantly affect plant productivity and plant community structure.
This study was conducted to investigate ectomycorrhizal (ECM) diversity on Pinus densiflora seedlings in a disturbed pine forest. Pine seedlings less than one year old were collected from disturbed and undisturbed sites in the Mt. Songni region. The belowground ECM fungal communities colonizing P. densiflora seedlings were studied using morphotyping and DNA sequencing. The relative abundance of ECM root tips was significantly higher in the undisturbed sites than in the disturbed sites, and the ECM species diversity was lower in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites. In addition, the ECM community composition was significantly different in the disturbed and undisturbed forest sites. This study was conducted to investigate ectomycorrhizal (ECM) diversity on Pinus densiflora seedlings in a disturbed pine forest. Pine seedlings less than one year old were collected from disturbed and undisturbed sites in the Mt. Songni region. The belowground ECM fungal communities colonizing P. densiflora seedlings were studied using morphotyping and DNA sequencing. The relative abundance of ECM root tips was significantly higher in the undisturbed sites than in the disturbed sites, and the ECM species diversity was lower in the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites. In addition, the ECM community composition was significantly different in the disturbed and undisturbed forest sites.