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Particulate matter (PM) and specifically, Asian dust (or yellow dust), have been identified as critical causes of health problems. Recent increases in the levels of ambient PM are closely associated with adverse health effects in susceptible populations, such as the elderly, children, and patients with asthma or allergic disorders, and this is cause for recent concern in Korea. The establishment of strategies for the reduction of ambient PM by the government and industry, the development of practical guidelines and recommendations to protect susceptible individuals, and an action program for implementation in the general population, will be essential to minimize adverse health impacts of PM and yellow dust. However, guidelines for the proper prevention and management of PM/yellow dust-induced effects on asthma are unclear. In the present study, we aimed to develop evidence-based practice guidelines and recommendations for pediatric or adult patients with asthma and for general physicians who care for asthmatic patients, in order to provide protection from adverse health effects of PM exposure.
The 150 kDa protein of cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Superose 6 HR gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein consisted of three subunits (15, 10 and 7 kDa proteins), which were analyzed with the use of a 7.5-15% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunofluorescence study was carried out by using immunize specific polyclonal antibody. Positive reactions were noticed at bladder walls, calcareous corpuscles, granules of cyst fluid and some host tissue surrounding the bladder wall of the metacestodes. These results suggest that the 150 kDa protein was secreted into host tissues, inducing immune responses in the host, and it may play important roles in the cellular physiology of the parasites.
After collecting calcareous corpuscles from plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni (sparganum), we evaluate the antigenic values of calcareous corpuscles binding proteins obtained from the cyst fluid of Taenia solium metacestodes. Immunoblot analysis revealed that cysticercosis patient sera strongly recognized 10 and 95 kDa calcareous corpuscles binding proteins. This result demonstrated that calcareous corpuscles are bound with major secretory antigenic proteins, which is possibly involved in the secretory pathways of the 10 and 95 kDa proteins presenting in the cyst fluid of Taenia solium metacestodes.
We purified specific 31/36 kDa antigenic molecules from sparganum in different intermediate hosts (snakes and mice) and analyze their monosaccharide compositions. Compositional analysis showed that glucose and mannose concentrations were 2-3 fold higher in the 31/36 kDa molecule purified from snake than those from mouse. This result implies that antigenic glycoproteins of sparganum from snakes might be modified in mammalian sparganosis with respect to their carbohydrate composition.
The etiology of allergic diseases has been considered multi-factorial, comprising genetic,epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors, as well as their complex interactions. The rising prevalence of allergic disease in recent decades could be explained by changes in environmental factors rather than genetic factors. Climate change has many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mold. Therefore, climate changes are considered to be a key environmental factor affecting not only the prevalence but also the severity of allergic disease. In addition, these environmental factors might be more important for young children than for adults. While the concept that environmental factors including climate change would affect the characteristics of allergic disease is generally accepted, it is not enough to explain the mechanisms of the increase in the prevalence and severity of allergic diseases. Nevertheless, evidence exists that climate change has spurred changes in aeroallergens such as pollen and outdoor fungi,and that these changes are associated with the increased incidence of pediatric allergic disease.
In a previous study, the author developed a method for separation of the tegument of spargana (plerocercoids of Spirometra mansoni) from the parenchyme using urea. The present study, as a next step, was performed to evaluate which molecules are present in the outer tegument. Two major proteins, 180 and 200 kDa, are present in the tegument and we could make polyclonal antibodies against these molecules. Their immunolocalization was processed and the outermost layer of the spargana showed strong positive staining. Conclusively, we could confirm that the 180 and 200 kDa molecules might be tightly bound membrane proteins in the tegument of spargana.
Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children. MRMP is unlikely to be related to clinical, laboratory, or radiological severity, although it likely prolongs the persistence of symptoms and the length of hospital stay. Thereby, it causes an increased burden of the disease and poor quality of life for the patient as well as a societal socioeconomic burden. To date, the only alternative treatments for MRMP are secondary antimicrobials such as tetracyclines (TCs) or fluoroquinolones (FQs) or systemic corticosteroids; however, the former are contraindicated in children because of concerns about potential adverse events (i.e., tooth discoloration or tendinopathy). A few guidelines recommended TCs or FQs as the second-line drug of choice for treating MRMP. However, there have been no evidence-based guidelines. Furthermore, safety issues have not yet been resolved. Therefore, this article aimed to review the benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for treating MRMP in children and review the recommendations of international or regional guidelines and specific considerations for their practical application.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common chronic allergic respiratory diseases worldwide. Various practical guidelines for AR have been developed and updated to improve the care of AR patients; however, up to 40% patients remain symptomatic. The unmet need for AR care is one of the greatest public health problems in the world. The gaps between guideline and real-world practice, and differences according to the region, culture, and medical environments may be the causes of unmet needs for AR care. Because there is no evidence-based AR practical guideline reflecting the Korean particularity, various needs are increasing. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether existing guidelines are sufficient for AR patient management in real practice and whether development of regional guidelines to reflect regional differences is needed in Korea. A total of 99 primary physicians comprising internists, pediatricians, and otolaryngologists (n=33 for each) were surveyed by a questionnaire relating to unmet needs for AR care between June 2 and June 16 of 2014. Among 39 question items, participants strongly agreed on 15 items that existing guidelines were highly insufficient and needed new guidelines. However, there was some disagreement according to specialties for another 24 items. In conclusion, the survey results demonstrated that many physicians did not agree with the current AR guideline, and a new guideline reflecting Korean particularity was needed.