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        • KCI등재

          Do Helper T Cell Subtypes in Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Play a Role in the Antitumor Effect?

          양석우,강성호,김경래,최인홍,장항석,오영륜,홍순원 대한병리학회 2016 Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine Vol.50 No.5

          Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently accompanied by lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). Some reports claim that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (the clinical form of LT) enhances the likelihood of PTC; however, others suggest that LT has antitumor activity. This study was aimed to find out the relationship between the patterns of helper T cell (Th) cytokines in thyroid tissue of PTC with or without LT and the clinicopathological manifestation of PTC. Methods: Fresh surgical samples of PTC with (13 cases) or without (10 cases) LT were used. The prognostic parameters (tumor size, extra-thyroidal extension of PTC, and lymph node metastasis) were analyzed. The mRNA levels of two subtypes of Th cytokines, Th1 (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interferon γ [IFN-γ], and interleukin [IL] 2) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), were analyzed. Because most PTC cases were microcarcinomas and recent cases without clinical follow-up, negative or faint p27 immunoreactivity was used as a surrogate marker for lymph node metastasis. Results: PTC with LT cases showed significantly higher expression of TNF-α (p = .043), IFN-γ (p < .010), IL-4 (p = .015) than those without LT cases. Although the data were not statistically significant, all analyzed cytokines (except for IL-4) were highly expressed in the cases with higher expression of p27 surrogate marker. Conclusions: These results indicate that mixed Th1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ , and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-10) immunity might play a role in the antitumor effect in terms of lymph node metastasis.

        • KCI등재
        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Fabrication of $YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-x}$-Ag Composite Superconductors by Pyrophoric Synthetic Method

          양석우,김찬중,홍계원,신형식,Yang, Seok-U,Kim, Chan-Jung,Hong, Gye-Won,Sin, Hyeong-Sik Materials Research Society of Korea 1998 한국재료학회지 Vol.8 No.12

          $YBa_2$$Cu_3$$O_{7-y}$ (123) 초전도체에서 은 입자의 미세분산을 얻고자 말릭산을 사용한 발화합성과 고상반응법으로 123와 123-Ag 복합 초전도분말을 제조하였다. 발화합성분말을 원료로 사용할 시 마이크론 미만의 미세한 123 분말과 은 분말의 복합체를 얻을 수 있었다. 원료로 사용된 산화은($Ag_2O$) 분말은 발화합성과정 중금속 은으로 환원되었다. 원료분말에 첨가된 금속 은에 의한 반응 물질간의 확산 촉진으로 123상이 단시간내에 생성되었고 입자성장도 촉진되었다. 발화합성법으로 제조한 시편은 기계적 혼합공정으로 제조한 시편에 비해 은 입자들은 미세하게 분산시킬 수 있어서 초전도체의 임계전류밀도가 향상되었다. To obtain fine dispersion of Ag particles in $YBa_2$$Cu_3$$O_{7-y}$ (123) superconductors, 123 samples were made by pyrophoric synthetic method using malic acid and the subsequent solid- state reaction. As the pyrophoric synthetic powder was used as a precursor material, fine 123 powder of submicron size was produced in a short reaction time. The added $Ag_2$O was converted to metallic Ag during Pyrophoric reaction and it accelerated both the formation of 123 phase and the grain growth via the enhanced mass transfer. The Ag particles of the sample sintered using the pyrephoric synthetic powder were more finely dispersed in the 123 matrix, compared to those of the sample sintered using the mechanically mixed powder, attributing to the improvement of the superconducting properties.

        • KCI등재

          The System of City Planning and Development in North Korea: Focused on Development of Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC)

          양석우,곽동화 대한건축학회 2014 Architectural research Vol.16 No.3

          South and North Korea, the divided nations on the Korean peninsula, began with the same modern city planning system, but following the adoption of different national ideologies—capitalism and socialism—, they established their own city planning system and developed their cities accordingly. However, the process of planning and developing a joint city of Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) led to the recognition about the need to bridge the differences and prepare for future joint development. This study examines North Korea’s city planning system by comparing the two Koreas’ systems, and identify the characteristics of North Korea’s city planning system through a case analysis of the KIC. By comparing two cases, we found two distinct characteristics of North Korea’s. The one is a tool for realizing ideologies and maintaining national system. The other one is that it is ideology-oriented system for the supreme leader and party while South Korea has control-oriented system for the public. We analyze the KIC case based on four pillars: planning system, development system and procedure, master plan, and use behaviors. Result of analysis shows that in KIC there are many socialistic features as we mentioned above in terms of planning system, urban design & structure, and use behavior even though a private enterprise-Hyundai Asan, in South Korea led the whole process. This study is meaningful in that it identifies the specific characteristics of North Korea’s city planning focusing on the KIC and is expected to serve as a baseline material to set the future direction for North Korea’s development.

        • KCI등재후보

          다량의 안와첨주위 목재이물 및 누공의 치험 1예

          양석우,김연덕,김경락 대한안과학회 2004 대한안과학회지 Vol.45 No.8

          Purpose: A diagnosis of wooden intraorbital foreign bodies is common and their removal is often necessitated after complications become manifested. In case of operation, it is difficult to find and remove wooden foreign bodies completely. We have experienced a case of retained multiple intraorbital foreign bodies removed by the secondary operation. We report this case with a literature review. Methods: A 39-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of diplopia, exophthalmos, and limitation of eyeball movement. He had fallen down and had a lacerated wound. Right after primary closure, he experienced strabismus, orbital cellulitis, and abscess. Several months later, he had a soft mass in the operated lower lid, and two wooden intraorbital foreign bodies were found. MRI detected granuloma and cellulitis near the cavernous sinus. Results: More than ten intraorbital wooden foreign bodies were surgically removed. After the surgery exophthalmos and diplopia were improved, and limitation of eyeball movement disappeared. The MRI findings were also improved. Conclusions: Intraorbital wooden foreign bodies should be diagnosed with a thorough history taking and radiologic exam, due to a number of potential complications, such as orbital cellulitis, abscess, and diplopia. Furthermore, they should be removed in consideration that they can move spontaneously into the deep interior of the orbit. 목적 : 목재에 의한 안와내 이물은 수상 당시 진단이 이루어지지 않아 합병증이 발생한 후에 진단되는 일이 흔하고, 수술 시에도 이물의 발견과 제거가 불충분한 경우가 많다. 저자들은 2차례 반복된 수술에 의해 제거된 다량의 안와내 목재 이물 치험 1예를 보고한다. 대상과 방법 : 우상안검 열상을 입은 39세 남자환자가 사시, 봉와직염 등의 합병증으로 치료받던 중, 우하안검 연부종괴가 발생하였다. 연부종괴 절제술 중 나무조각이 발견되어 제거하였으나 술후 지속적으로 절개부위에서 고름이 흘러나와 안와 전산화 단층촬영을 시행하였고, 육아종이 여전히 줄지않은 소견을 보였다. 본원 전원 후 실시한 자기공명촬영에서 안와첨 주위 육아종에 둘러싸인 이물질이 관찰되었다 결과 : 안와내 이물질과 육아종 제거술을 시행하여 십수개의 목재이물을 제거하였다. 술후 안구돌출, 부종, 고름배출 등의 임상증상은 개선되었고, 컴퓨터 단층촬영상 육아종 소견이 보이지 않았다. 결론 : 잔류된 안와내 목재이물은 안와 깊은 곳까지 이동할 수 있으므로 철저한 병력 청취와 방사선 검사를 통해 정확한 진단과 세심한 제거가 시행되어야 한다.

        • KCI등재후보

          굴절이상에 따른 조절마비검사 전 후의 시력변화 비교

          양석우,이나영,김소열,Suk Woo Yang,Na Young Lee,So Youl Kim 대한안과학회 2006 대한안과학회지 Vol.47 No.9

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Purposes: To evaluate the effect of cycloplegia on the visual acuity and stereopsis according to the refraction and age. Methods: This study included 112 eyes of 56 patients, which were divided into three groups according to the refraction. The best corrected visual acuity and stereopsis were compared between without and with cycloplegia in all groups according to age. Results: After cycloplegia, at near, naked visual acuity decreased in 0.53 logMAR, average and stereopsis also deceased from 93 seconds to 343 seconds. At far, the naked and best corrected visual acuity had less decreased than near visual acuity. At near, there was no significant difference on the degree of decreased visual acuity and stereopsis according to refraction, but in emmetropic patients, the visual acuity at near significantly decreased. Patients younger than ten years old had more decreased visual acuity at near compared with older than forty-five years old. Conclusions: After pupil dilatation, there significant decreased near visual acuity and stereopsis, there was little change at far. The degree of decreased vision was different according to the refraction and age, therefore it would be helpful to explain the anticipating result.

        • KCI등재

          열처리 조건에 따른 재현 도금층의 표면현상

          양석우,김수기 한국문화재보존과학회 2012 보존과학회지 Vol.28 No.1

          이 연구는 매장상태에서 출토되는 금동유물의 표면색이 고유한 금색 이외에 붉은 계열의 색들과 교반되어 나타나는 원인을 규명하고자 수은아말감도금법을 재현해 보고 완성품에 대하여 열처리 조건을 변화시켜 도금층의 표면색과 표면 및 단면의 상태변화를 알아보고자 하였다. 그 결과 높은 열처리 실험조건 일수록 도금층에 검은 산화물층이 넓게 생성되었으며, 산화물층을 제거한 부분에서는 붉은색의 도금 표면색이 표출되었다. 또한 표면이 노란색과 붉은색으로 교반된 시료의 미세 표면관찰에서는 색상에 따라 표면상태의 변화양상이 다르게 나타났으며 단면에서는 도금층 공극의 밀도와 크기가 점차 커지는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 열처리 실험 후 표면성분분석 결과 온도가 올라갈수록 Hg와 Au의 비율은 감소하였으나 Cu의 성분비는 증가하였다. 또한 단면분석 결과에서도 실험조건에 따른 층위별 Au와 Cu의 성분변화가 반비례하는 경향을 보였다. 이러한 실험결과들을 볼 때 아말감을 이용한 금동유물은 생산과정이나 생산 이후에 열이 도금층의 표면색에 영향을 미치는 것을 의미하며 도금층 상태에도 관계된다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다.

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