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With the development of artificial intelligence and unmanned technologies, the remote surveillance/autonomousdriving systems have been actively researched. For an effective performance analysis of the developed remotecontrol system, it is important to record the data of it in real time. In addition, in order to analyze theperformance between the control system and the remote system, the recorded data from them should besynchronized with time. In this paper we proposed a novel time synchronization method for the remote controlsystem. The proposed remote control system satisfies the time difference of the recorded data within 1 ms, and wecan reduce the time difference by using a CPU shielding and affinity setting. The performance of the proposedmethod was proved through various network data storage experiments. And the experiments confirmed that theproposed method can be applied to recording devices of unmanned ground vehicles and control vehicles. Theproposed method will be used as a method for analyzing network data of UGV-R (Unmanned Ground Vehicle –Reconnaissance). 인공지능 및 무인 감시, 자율화 기술의 발전으로 인해 무인으로 운용되는 원격 감시/자율 주행 시스템의 개발이 활발히 연구되고있다. 개발되는 원격운용 및 제어 시스템의 효과적인 성능분석을 위해서는 원격운용 시스템의 데이터를 실시간으로 기록하고 그 데이터를 분석하는 일이 중요하다. 또한, 통제 시스템과 원격 시스템 간의 성능분석을 위해서는 각 시스템의 기록데이터 간 시간동기화가 필수적으로 요구된다. 본 논문에서는 원격운용 시스템의 기록데이터 분석을 위한 GPS 기반 시간동기화 설계 방안을 제시한다. 제안 방법은 기록데이터에 GPS 신호를 활용한 정밀한 시간정보를 기록함으로써 원격 시스템이 기록데이터 시간 오차를 1ms 이내로 만족할 수 있도록 하였으며, OS 내 설정을 통해 이더넷 통신을 특정 CPU가 전담하도록 하는 CPU shielding 및 affinity 설정기법을 통해 시간동기화 성능을 개선하였다. 제안 방법은 단계별 실험 및 네트워크 데이터 저장 실험을 통해서 그 성능을 입증하였으며, 무인수색차량의 무인차량과 통제차량 기록장치에 적용할 수 있음을 확인하였다. 제안 방법은 향후 무인수색차량의 네트워크데이터 분석 방법으로 활용할 예정이며, 활용 중에 발생하는 다양한 분석을 통해 성능 개선을 해 나갈 예정이다.
Objectives : Study Cause of Elbow pain. Methods : Literature Review on Elbow pain in view of oriental medicine and western medicine. Conclusions : In view of oriental medicine cause of elbow pain is yukum(六淫), Jangbu(臟腑), gunglak(經絡) and in western medicine, cause is inflammation, overworking, ankylosing, deformity, etc.
Background: Subcortical vascular dementia(SVaD) is relatively homogeneous subtype of VaD, but the mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction of subcortical VaD are not completely understood yet This study investigated the changes of cerebral blood flow(CBF) in patients with SVaD and the contribution of the white matter hyperintensity(WMHI) and clinical severity to CBF changes. Methods: 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) was performed to measure the regional CBF and statistical parametric mapping(SPM)99 software was applicated to automated and objective analysis of the SPECT image data Twenty three patients (male 12, female 11) of mild to moderate dementia who met both the criteria of the DSM-IV and probable or possible NINDS-AIREN for VaD and have subcortical white matter changes and lacunar infarction on brain MRI and seventeen normal control subjects (male 7, female 10) were evaluated The severity of the WMHI was measured by semi-quantitative scale method proposed by Mantyla. The seventy of dementia was measured by clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale Results: SPM analysis of SPECT image revealed significantly reduced regional CBF in the right thalamus, left caudatd nucleus, cingulate, bilateral superior temporal, and left ventral subcallosal gyri in SVaD patients when it compared to normal controls (corrected p<0 001). Among four WMHIs, only the WMHI was associated with the small CBF reduction in the left superior temporal gyrus (uncorrected p<0 01) The reduction of CBF according to the severity of dementia was noted in the anterior and posterior association areas (uncorrected p<0 01). Conclusions: our study suggests that cognitive dysfunction of SVaD may be related with CBF reduction in the above mentioned brain areas, which probable are not associated with the severity of periventncular WMHI and dementia.
Image registration is a process of overlaying two or more images of the same scene taken at different times, from different viewpoints, and by different sensors. It geometrically aligns two images, the reference and sensed image. In this paper, a fast and efficient image registration algorithm is proposed for IDS (Intruder Detection System). To reduce a calculation time, outlier rejection method based on uniformity, entropy and subimage is used. An edge tapering method is applied to alleviate a boundary effect of a subimage. And it is shown that the proposed algorithm improves the accuracy and calculation time effectively.
Background and Objectives . Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of the dementia Pathologic and functional changes of AD are known to be unevenly distributed in the brain. This study investigates changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with AD to determine brain regions with hypoperfusion that reflects progression of disease. Methods. Tc-99m-ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure regional CBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 99 soft ware was used for the automated and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. Twenty-five patients with mild to moderate dementia who met NINCDS-ADRDA critena for AD (male 11 female 14) and 17 age-matched normal control subjects were studied. The severity of AD was measured by clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale Results. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that CBF in the anterior cingulate gyrus left superior panetal cortex left medial frontal cortex left infenor temporal cortex. right thalamus and left hippocampus was significantly decreased in AD patients compared with normal controls (corrected p<0.05). The reduction of CBF according to CDR was localized in the left hippocampus and infenor temporal cortex right antenor and postenor ciagulate cortex and right superior panetal cortex (uncorrected p<0.01). Conclusions : Our data suggest that the cognitive dysfunction of AD is strongly related with functional abnormality in discrete brain areas 99m-Tc ECD SPECT with SPM analysis could be used as a useful functional imaging tool in AD study.
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Recently, there has been substantial interest in flexible and wearable devices whose properties and performances are close to conventional devices on hard substrates. Despite the advancement on flexible devices with organic semiconductors or carbon nanotube films, their performances are limited by the carrier scattering at the molecular to molecular or nanotube-to-nanotube junctions. Here in this study, we demonstrate on the vertical semiconductor crystal array embedded in flexible polymer matrix. Such structures can relieve the strain effectively, thereby accommodating large flexural deformation. To achieve such structure, we first established a low-temperature solution-phase synthesis of single crystalline 3D architectures consisting of epitaxially grown ZnO constituent crystals by position and growth direction controlled growth strategy. The ZnO vertical crystal array was integrated into a piece of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, which was then mechanically detached from the hard substrate to achieve the freestanding ZnO-polymer composite. In addition, the characteristics of transferred ZnO were confirmed by additional structural and photoluminescent measurements. The ZnO vertical crystal array embedded in PDMS was further employed as pressure sensor that exhibited an active response to the external pressure, by piezoelectric effect of ZnO crystal. 최근, 유연하며 몸에 부착 가능한 소자들에 대한 관심이 늘어나고 있다. 이런 관심을 뒷받침 하여 이와 관련된다양한 연구들이 진행되고 있는데, 기존 딱딱한 성질을 가진 소자에 사용되던 무기물 기반의 재료의 경우 유연 소자로 만들기에 여러 가지 제약이 있어 유연하게 제작할 수 있는 유기물 반도체나 탄소 나노튜브 필름 등을 이용한 소자들이 주로연구되고 개발되어 왔다. 하지만 이런 재료들을 이용한 소자의 경우 유기물 분자와 분자 사이 또는 탄소 나노튜브와 나노튜브 사이에서 전하들이 산란되는 등 재료 자체의 한계로 인해 기존의 재료를 사용한 소자들보다 전기적 성능이 떨어지는단점을 가지고 있다. 이런 단점들을 해결하기 위하여 이 연구에서는 수직 정렬된 반도체 결정 어레이를 투명 유연한 폴리머와 결합하는 방법을 이용, 고품질 나노/마이크로 반도체 결정을 유연한 기판으로 전사 시킬 수 있는 방법을 제시한다. 위와 같은 구조는 재료에 가해지는 힘을 완화 시켜줄 수 있으며, 이로 인해 큰 변형에도 재료의 손상이 없는 소자 제작이 가능하다. 이런 구조를 구현하기 위해 위치 및 크기가 정교하게 제어된 ZnO 나노막대 단결정을 저온에서 용액공정을 통하여합성시킨다. 이후 성장시킨 ZnO 단결정 어레이와 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 폴리머를 결합시킨 후 단단한 기판에서기계적으로 박리시켜 ZnO/폴리머 복합체를 분리해 낸다. 추가적으로 전사된 ZnO의 결정성을 확인하기 위하여 photoluminescent 분석을 진행하였으며, ZnO/폴리머 복합체를 이용한 외부 힘에 반응하는 압력 센서를 제작하였다.
Background: Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the survival and differentiation of vertebrate neurons, and their actions are mediated by two classes of cell surface receptors: tyrosine kinase A receptor (TrkA) and p75 neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR). We evaluated the role of NGF receptors in neuronal survival and the physical interactions between them. Methods: Organotypic hippocampal slices were obtained from 5 to 7-day-old rat pups and were grown for 14 days in vitro. The expression of the TrkA and p75NTR was evaluated by the western blot and immunohistochemical methods. The neuroprotective effect of NGF on the blocking of antibody-induced neuronal cell death was tested by the application of NGF (0, 50 and 150 ng/ml) to the culture media in the presence of 200 ng/ml of blocking antibodies against TrkA and p75NTR. Functional interactions between the two receptors were examined using the immunoprecipitation method. Results: TrkA and p75NTR were co-expressed in the principal neurons of the hippocampal slice culture, and the expression level was increased time dependently until 14 days of culture. The blocking antibody against each receptor induced neuronal damage in time and dose-dependent manners. NFG delayed or prevented the blocking antibody from inducing neuronal damage. Results from the immunoprecipitation experiment showed physical interactions between the two NGF receptors. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the co-expressed NGF receptors, TrkA and p75NTR, might have protective roles in the survival of neuronal cells through the cooperative interactions between them.
In this paper, a new design technique on the LRF which is useful for low power laser and a CBDA(Cummulative Binary Detection Algorithm) is proposed. The LD(Laser Diode) and Si-APD(Silicon Avalanche Photo Diode) are used for saving a power. In order to prove the detection range, the Si-APD binary data are accumulated before the range computation and the range finding algorithm. A prototype of the proposed DLRF(Diode Laser Range Finder) system was made and tested. An experimental result shows that the DLRF system have the same detection range using a less power(almost 1/32) than an usual military LRF. The proposed DLRF can be applied to the Unmanned Vehicles, Robot and Future Combat System of a tiny size and a low power LRF.
Among the cognitive processes, the ability to acquire and retain information about the world around us and our experience is vital for the survival of human. This ability, i.e., learning and memory, is mediated by multiple cognitive and neural systems. The hypothetical stages of memory are divided in several steps such as registration, encoding, storage, access, and retrieval. For the good memory, every steps of memory process should be performed successfully. There are several subtypes of memory systems like working memory, semantic memory, episodic memory, as well as memory for skills and procedures. Anatomical structures that are important in memory are different according to the subtypes of memory systems. The medial temporal lobe, thalamic structures and their connections are important for the episodic memory. The frontal lobe is associated with the working memory and the lateral temporal cortex is associated with the semantic memory. Basal ganglia and cerebellum are associated with procedural memory. Many disorders leading to amnesia can affect different structures of brain and cause different patterns of memory dysfunctions. This review helps clinicians and researchers to know the systems and biological structures of memory and to understand the variable clinical features of the amnestic patients.