http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Despite of technical advances in surgery & other therapeutic modalities five-year survival rates in patients with carcinoma of hypopharynx have remained low. Many techniques have been used to create a structure capable of allowing the passage of food and fluids in an attempt to maintain the anatomy and physiology of the upper digestive system. The development of microsurgical techniques and the concept of mucocutaneous unit has brought about important changes in the reconstruction of cervical esophagus following tumor resection. The one-stage procedure using microvascular anastomosis of free jejunal graft provides physiologic reconstruction of cervical esophagus and has a low morbidity rate as well as a short recuperation time. With free jejunal graft, there is marked improvement in the quality of life and numerous advantages over the previous methods of reconstruction. Reconstruction of esophageal defect after resection of carcinomas of the hypopharynx, and cervical esophagus has traditionally been carried out with deltopectoral, or musculocutaneous skin-lined flaps. A second approach is to reconstruct the defect with the colon or stomach. A more ideal mettled is to repair these defects with mucosa-lined flaps. The authors experienced 35 cases of reconstruction of cervical esophagus after resection of carcinoma of the hypopharynx with free jejunal autograft and one case of secondary repair with radial forearm free flap after failure of initial free Jejunal autograft. Postoperative results were satisfactory in most patients and two patients expired in 8 days postoperatively because of carotid blow out by chronic inflammation.
Background: The diagnostic criteria for bathtub drownings are not standardized, and the risk factors associated with bath-related deaths are unclear. Methods: We analyzed a Korean nationwide database of bath-related deaths that occurred between January 2008 and December 2015. Eighty-four cases were enrolled after reviewing 31,123 autopsy records. Results: The subjects' ages ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 61.3 ± 16.0 years. Bath-related deaths in the winter were approximately 4.6-fold greater than those in the summer. Of the 84 subjects, the primary cause of death in 57 (67.9%) was drowning in the bath; 24 (28.6%) drowned of other causes such as natural diseases, and 3 (3.6%) died of acute alcohol intoxication. We analyzed water-inhalation signs to establish criteria for bathtub drowning diagnosis. There were significantly higher incidences of hyperinflated lungs, water in the sphenoid sinus and stomach/duodenal contents, and Paltauf 's spots (subpleural hemorrhage) in bathtub-drowned subjects compared to non- drowned individuals (P < 0.01). Multiple signs of water inhalation were significantly associated with bathtub drowning (P < 0.01). The two leading contributory causes of bath-related death were cardiovascular diseases and alcohol intoxication (binge drinking before bathing). Conclusion: The diagnosis of bath-related deaths could present considerable medico-legal problems; therefore, a comprehensive autopsy with a thorough scene investigation can clarify the cause of death in these situations. Preventive strategies for reducing such deaths should target alcohol drinking before bathing and long soaking times in bathtubs, especially among elderly individuals with preexisting cardiovascular diseases.
Myocutaneous flaps have come to have very important role in head and neck reconstruction, not onlyh to correct surgical defects but also to allow more complete functional and estectic recovery. The pectoralis major myocutoneous island flap, as noted Ariya, is the most useful among various myocataneous pedicled flap. It has many advantages such as abundant tissue with rich blood supply, automic prozimity, long are of rotation, reliability and versality. We had been treated with extensive resection and pectoralis major myocutaneous island flap in 18 cases of staged Ⅲ.Ⅳ head and neek cancer.
Effect of chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal on cholinesterase activity in serum, liver and brain of rat was investigated in this study. Badawy's method was modified in chronic morphine-treatment. In the chronic morphine-treated group, cholinesterase activities in serum, liver and brain were increased, while the enzyme activities in withdrawal group exhibited two phase change, i.e. initial decrease followed by recovery in serum and liver cholinesterase, and initial increase followed by decrease after 7th day of morphine-treatment. In vitro experiments, high dose of morphine decreased the cholinesterase activities of serum, liver and brain of rat. From the above results, it is debated that change of choliesterase activity in the chronic morphine-treatment and withdrawal animals will greatly influence to the physiogical function of the addict, and the change of the enzyme activity by chronic morphine-treatment in vivo is not due to the direct inhibitory action of morphine on this enzyme.