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The increase in size of lymph node on CT scan is the single most important finding of lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of mediastinal lympy nodes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with no evidence of malignancy or current infection. CT scans of 70 patients (16 with conventional CT and 54 with high-resolution CT) were assessed for lymph node size and locations. The duration of symptoms, and the extent and patterns of th parenchymal lung disease on CT scans were correlated with lymph node enlargement. In 54 of 70 patients, more than one lymph nodes were larger than 1-1.5cm. The prevalence of mnode enlargement increased significantly with a longer duration of symptom (p=0.001), larger extent of the disease (p=0.043), and with a greater proportion of honeycomb pattern (p=0033). Right paratracheal, subcarinal, right tracheobronchial, and paraesophageal nodes were the most common sites of node enlargement. In conclusion, mediastinal ly ph node enlargement is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is more frequently seen in patients with a longer duration of clinical symptoms, greater extent of the disease, and with a larger proportion of honeycomb pattern.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the balloon bronchoplasty in the treatment of the tuberculous bronchostenosis. Balloon bronchoplasty was performed in thirteen patients with stenosis of the left main bronchus(two with combined left upper and lower lobar bronchostenosis) using a inflatable balloon catheter under a fluoroscopic guide. We analysed the changes in the severity of dyspnea and wheezing, serial FEV1/FVC as a parameter of the airflow obsturction, and bronchial diameter and lung volume on chest radiographs. The extent of pulmonary tuberculosis was correlated with the improvement of FEV1/FVC. There was an improvement of dyspnea in 69%(9/13), decrease of wheezing in 69%(9/13), significant increase of FEV1/FVC in 18% (2/11) The increase of the bronchial diameter and lung volume were seen in 84%(11/13) and 53%(7/13), respectively. The significant increase of FEV1/FVC was seen in 28% (2/7) of the patients with lung involvement of tuberculosis less than one third of left upper lobe, whereas there was no increase in those of more than one third. There was no complication except transient leukocytosis, fever and blood-tinged sputum. In conclusion, balloon bronchoplasty is effective in the treatment of medically intractable tuberculous bronchostenosis. and can be considered as an initial method of treatment.
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 41 patients with compression fracture of the spine. MR images of 14 patients with acute spinal trauma (within recent 1 month), eight patients with chronic trauma (over 1 month) and 19 patients with malignant cause without history of trauma were analyzed, retrospectively. Low signal intencities on T1-weighted images and high signal intensities on T2- weighted images were noted in 86% (12/14) of patients with acute trauma. Iso-signal intensities on all pulse sequences were noted in 50%(4/8) of patients with chronic trauma showed enhancement. Fragmentation was seen in 35%(5/14) of patients with acute trauma, in 25% (2/8) with chronic trauma, and not seen in the patients with metastasis. In conclusion, acute traumatic compression fracture can not be differentiated from malignant cause by MR signal intensity or contrast enhancement, but chronic compression fracture can be distinguished from metasasis. Fragmentation may suggest traumatic compression fracture. So, MRI could be a useful mehtod in differentiating the benign compression fractures from the pathologic ones caused by malignancy.
To evaluate the value of MR imaging in the examination of ligament injury of the knee. we rretrospectively analysed the MR images of 61 injured knees of 60 patients. The presence of tear was determined by arthroscopy in all cases. Anterior/pasterior curciate ligaments (ACL/PCL) were demonstrated by sagittal images, Medial/lateral collateral ligaments(MCL/LCL) were evaluated on coronal images. The diagnostic accuracy were 91.8%, 96.7%, and 100% for ACL,PCL, and MCL respectively. The specificity for the lateral collateral ligament was 100% It is concluded that magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate method in detecting injury of the ligaments of the knee.
Recent technological advances have made magnetic resonance images (MR) of the knee a clinical reality. MR is rapidly replacing the conventional arthrography as the imaging modality of choice of the knee joints. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR in the internal derangement of the knee, MR findings of 244 menisci and 488 ligaments of 122 knees were correlated with those of subsequent arthroscopy or surgery in all cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR diagnosis for the medial meniscus were 87%, 93%, 91%, for the lateral meniscus 91%, 95%, 93%, for the anterior cruciate ligament 80%, 97%, 92%, for the posteriior cruciate ligamant 73%, 99%, 97%, for the medial collateral ligament 67%, 100%, 99%, for the lateral collateral ligament 100%, 100%, and 100%. These results imply that MR is an excellent diagnostic modality in the preoperative evaluation of clinically suspected internal derangement of the knee.
The purpose of this study is to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings of metastatic brain tumors with emphasis on the signal intensities of the lesion on MR. Thirty four patients with intracranial metastases were studies with MR imaging. The diagnosis was established on the basis of either brain biopsy or combination of brain MR findings and the presence of primary tumors. The primary tumors include lung cancer (n=18), breast cancer (n=3), stomach cancer (n=3), rectal cacer (n=1), renal cell carcinoma (n=1), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=4), The parenchymal lesions were solitary in 35% (12/34) and multiple in 65% (22/34). The size of the lesions was variable, ranging from several millimeters to 5cm in diameter. The corticomedullar junction of the cerebral heispheres was the most common location of the lesions (68%) The signal intensity of solid portion of the lesions was usually either isointense (44%) or hypointense(29%) on T1-weighted images. whereas it appeared in isointense (47%), hypointense (8%) or hyperintense (11%) on proton density-weighted images, whereas it appeared in isointense (47%), hypointense (8%) or hyperintense (11%) on proton density -weighted or T2-weighted images. The remaining cases showed mixed signal intensities. The enhancement patterns were variable including nodular (<1cm) (6%), homogeneous (19%), heterogenous (10%), ring-like enhancement (22%) or mixed pattern (43%). The size of surrounding edema was larger than the tumor diameter in 76%. In conclusion, although there are no specific MR findings of intracranial metastasis except mulitplicity, intracranial metastasis should be included in differential diagnosis with high priority, when a solitary mass showing isointensity on boty T1-and T2-weighted images with massive surrounding edema, especially in the corticomedullary junction of the cerebral hemispheres is encountered.
본 논문은, 개구결합 안테나의 마이크로스트립 선로를 L형태로 변형하였고, 슬롯의 위치는 선로의 끝단으로부터 λg/4 지점에 위치한다. T-Junction으로부터 수직, 수평선로의 길이차이를 λg/4로 하여 원형편파를 얻을 수 있는 X밴드의 소형 마이크로 스트립 안테나를 제안하였다. 제안된 안테나를 HFSS 해석기를 이용하여 해석하였으며, 파라미터 값을 최적화 하였다. 그 결과 반사계수는 -10dB를 기준으로 9.28GHz~10.26GHz까지의 980MHz의 대역폭과 원형 편파에 의한 대역은 350MHz의 대역폭을 갖으며, 최대 이득은 5.09dBi을 얻었다. In this paper, we changed microstrip line of aperture coupled antenna to L type and located slot in λg/4 where its end from the line. We suggested small-sized microstrip antenna of X-band, which can achieved with difference of λg/4 length, between horizon and a perpendicular line from T-junction. The suggested antenna was analyzed by using HFSS analyzer and parameters were optimized. For result reflection coefficient is to 9.28GHz~10.26GHz base -10dB with 980MHz bandwidth and 350MHz bandwidth by circularized polarization, and acquired 5.09dBi of maximum gain.
본 논문은 X-band에서 동작하는 십자형 개구결합 마이크로스트립 원형편파 안테나를 설계·제작하였다. 단일 안테나는 정사각형 패치를 사용하고 직렬 형태의 급전선로 위에 λg/4 위상차가 나는 곳에 슬롯이 위치하게 하여 전류 방향이 최대·최소가 반복되게 하여 원형편파를 발생시키게 된다. 기존의 십자형 슬롯 안테나 구조를 수정하여 두 개의 슬롯이 직각으로 교차하는 부분을 없애고 분리된 4개의 슬롯으로 안테나를 설계함으로써 후방방사를 줄이고 안테나 이득도 개선 할수 있다. 따라서 중심 주파서 9.31 GHz에서 임피던스 대역폭(VSWR≤2)은 8.67~9.50 GHz(8.91%)로 나타났고 최대 방사 이득은 5.59 dBi를 얻었다. 그리고 축비대역폭은 8.96~9.16 GHz를 만족하였다. In this paper, cross-aperture coupled microstrip circular polarization antenna is proposed for the X-band. A single antenna consists of square patch and slots are located in series feed line with λg/4 phase different which make current direction maximum and minimum repeatedly to generate RHCP(Right Handed Circularly polarization). We are proposed new structure that removed the section which intersected at a right angle and were composed to four separated slots. The proposed cross slots reduce back lobe of radiation pattern and improve antenna gain. The simulated impedance bandwidth is from 8.67 to 9.50 GHz(8.91%) at 9.31 GHz center frequency and simulated maximum radiation gain is 5.59 dBi. Axial Ratio bandwidth is from 8.96 to 9.16 GHz.