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Acanthopanax sessiliflorus(A. sessiliflorus) has been known as traditional medicine having anti-stress, antioxidative and platelet aggregation inhibitory effects. Eleutheroside E is the standard substance showing functional properties in A. sessiliflorus. This study was constituted to establish the appropriate extraction conditions(extraction solvent, time, temperature and the number of extraction time) of eleutheroside E from A. sessiliflorus. 50%(v/v) methanol(methanol : water = 1:1) and distilled water were appropriate solvents for extraction. The appropriate extraction temperature and time turned out to be 80℃, 3hours, respectively. Due to heat unstability of eleutheroside E, exposure at high temperature(above 80℃) for a long time induced the degradation of eleutheroside E. Therefore one time extraction was advantageous to obtain eleutheroside E from A. sessiliflorus. This results can be used for development of nutraceutical foods and pharmaceuticals.
To determine the bioactive compound of domestic cherry tomato, the levels of lycopene, β-carotene, and phenolic compounds were analyzed in three domestic cherry tomato cultivars (Summerking, Qutiquti, and Minchal) using HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The levels of lycopene were 69.40 mg/100 g (Qutiquti), 69.07 mg/100 g (Minichal), and 38.52 mg/100 g (Summerking). The contents of β-carotene were 3.35 mg/100 g (Qutiquti), 2.30 mg/100 g (Summerking), and 2.25 mg/100 g (Minichal). Five phenolic compounds were identified exactly as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3-apiosylrutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and naringenin chalcone from three domestic cherry tomatoes. Five phenolic compounds were identified partially as two isomers of caffeic acid-hexose, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, di-caffeoylquinic acid, and tri-caffeoylquinic acid from three domestic cherry tomatoes. Naringenin chalcone was the most abundant phenolic compound, ranging from 78.2 mg/100 g for Qutiquti to 222.9 mg/100 g for Summerking. High levels of quercetin-3-rutinoside and 5-caffeoylquinic acid were found, ranging 24.3- 50.8 mg/100 g and 31.8-47.6 mg/100 g, respectively. These results suggested that domestic cherry tomatoes can be used as bioactive food materials.
The aim of this study was to investigate bioactive compounds from three domestic tomato varieties (Rafito, Momotaro TY Winner, and Medison). Lycopene, β-carotene and polyphenols were quantified and identified using HPLC and LC-MS/MS. The levels of lycopene ranged from 28.36 mg/100 g to 60.18 mg/100 g. The content of β-carotene ranged from 2.00 mg/100 g to 2.92 mg/100 g. Ten kinds of polyphenol compounds were identified: caffeic acid-hexose isomer (I), caffeic acid-hexose isomer (II), 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, quercetin-3-apiosylrutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, di-caffeoylquinic acid, tri-caffeoylquinic acid, and naringenin chalcone. The level of 5-caffeoylquinic acid was the highest in domestic tomato varieties, ranging from 12.71 mg/100 g to 28.40 mg/100 g. The content of quercetin-3-rutinoside ranged from 3.74 mg/100 g to 17.64 mg/100 g. The contents of 3-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-apiosylrutinoside were 1.01~2.31 mg/100 g and 5.84~6.83 mg/100 g, respectively. Arrestingly naringenin chalcone was found only in Medison variety (36.82 mg/100 g). These results revealed that domestic tomato can be a good source of bioactive compounds for human health.
To determine the nutritional value of domestic tomatoes, the levels of amino acids, amino acid metabolites, and the bioactive compound γ-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) were analyzed in three domestic tomato varieties (Rafito, Momotaro, and Medison). Eighteen free amino acids were found, and total free amino acid content was 3,810.21~4,594.56 mg/100 g (dry weight). L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) was the most abundant amino acid, ranging from 1,866.60 mg/100 g for Momotaro to 2,417.45 mg/100 g for Medison. The next most abundant amino acids were L-glutamine (L-Gln) and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp). The three tomato varieties had a good balance of all the essential amino acids except tryptophan. Total essential amino acid content was 274.26~472.71 mg/100 g (dry weight). The following amino acid metabolites were found: L-carnitine (L-Car), hydroxylysine (Hyl), o-phosphoethanolamine (o-Pea), phosphoserine (p-Ser), β-alanine (β-Ala), N-methyl-histidine (Me-His), ethanolamine (EtNH2),and L-citrulline(L-Cit). Large quantities of GABA were found in all three varieties: 666.95-868.48 mg/100g (dry weight). These results support the use of these tomato varieties as nutritious food materials.
D-xylan은 최근 대체 에너지원인 알콜 생산의 기질로서 주목받고 있을 뿐만 아니라 butanol과 butandiol과 같은 유기 용매와 xylitol과 같은 감미료, xylooligosaccharide와 같은 bifidogenic factor 등의 원료로 사용된다. 본 논문에서는 발효된 톱밥으로부터 xylanase 강력 생산성 균주를 분리하고 제 특성을 확인하여 Bacillus sp. GS로 동정하였다. Xylanase 생산성을 높이기 위해 효소 생산 배지 성분과 배양 조건을 최적화 하였는데, 각각 xylan 1.25%, yeast extract 0.1%, NaNO_3 1.2%, K_2HPO_4 0.1%, MgSO_4 0.02%, mineral salt 0.005%와 pH 6.5, 배양 온도 37℃였다. To utilize hemicellulosic biomass efficiently, the microorganism producing xylanase was isolated from fermented sawdust. It was a Gram positive, aerobic and rod shape bacterium. It had endospore and secreted strong hydrolases, such as amylase and protease. Through morphological, cultural and physiological tests, it was identified as Bacillus sp. GS. To increase the productivity of xylanase from Bacillus sp. GS, the enzyme production medium was optimized. The composition of the medium and incubation conditions were like follows : xylan 1.25%, yeast extract 0.1% NaNO_3 0.2%, K_2HPO_4 0.1%, MgSO_4 0.02%, mineral salt 0. 005%, pH 6.5, incubation temperature 37 ℃.
Bacillus sp. GS가 생산하는 xylanase를 DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion chromatography DEAE-Sephadex G-100 gel filtration을 통하여 정제한 후 그 특성을 조사 하였다. 최적 반응 온도와 pH는 각각 40℃, 6.5이었으며 50℃ 이하에서는 안정하였으나 그 이상이 되면 급격히 불활성화 되는 것으로 보아 열 안정성은 좋지 않음을 알 수 있었다. pH 안정성을 조사한 결과 pH 5.5에서 8.0까지는 안정하였고, 금속이온에 의한 영향을 살펴본 결과 Co^++, Cu^++에 의하여 효소의 활성이 현저히 증가함을 알 수 있었고, Hg^+에 의해서는 거의 완전히 효소의 활성이 저해됨을 알 수 있었다. 분리된 효소는 birchwood xylan을 기질로 하여 분해 산물을 분석한 결과 xylobiose가 주성분인 xylooligosaccharide를 생산하는 endo형의 효소임을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 본 효소는 xylan으로부터 bifidogenic factor인xylooligosaccharide를 생산하기에 적당한 효소라고 생각된다. Xylanase from Bacillus sp. GS was purified through acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The optimum reaction temperature of purified xylanase was 50℃. Its optimum pH was between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. This enzyme was stable below 50℃ for several hours and stable at between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0. The enzyme activity of xylanase was remarkably increased by Co^++ and Cu^++ ions. According to the study of hydrolysis mode of this enzyme, it was turned out to be endo type xylanase that can produce xylooligosaccharides, known as bifidogenic factor, from xylan.