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Have you ever seen images of an elegant woman dressed in period clothes, threatening to stab another woman through the neck; a model facing a leopard behind a mannequin hand; or a lady using a hook to fish a purse out of a pool, while a seemingly dead man is floating in the water? The descriptions of these scenes might sound dark and absurd, and provoke disgust or displeasure; but the fact is, these images have been used in real advertisements for prestigious fashion brands such as Gucci and Dolce & Gabbana, and were featured heavily in various fashion magazines. Recently, advertisers have sought to differentiate their products by using grotesque imagery in their ads as a strategy to get consumers' attention and stimulate their curiosity. Although growing attention is being paid to ads that are not conventionally ‘pretty', very little research has tried to empirically document the effect of grotesque imagery on the persuasiveness of luxury brand advertising, or unveil the psychological mechanism underlying the effect. The purpose of this research is to investigate how grotesque imagery used for luxury products appeal to consumers, and why the ads affect the consumers' behavior. We empirically demonstrated that the grotesque imagery used to promote luxury products enhances consumers' purchase intention because it facilitates consumers to better experience the brand by transporting them to the narratives that are portrayed in the ads. This process occurs because a correspondence between grotesque imagery and luxury branding generates the fit effect, which leads to fluent processing and feel right experience, and in turn induces engagement to the ad. Grotesque Advertisement Grotesque was the word indicating the style of ancient decoration that depicted fantastic combinations of human and animal forms, interwoven with strange fruits and flowers. The Cambridge Dictionary of English now defines grotesque as a general adjective that describes anything “very strange and unpleasant, especially in a ridiculous or slightly frightening way.” Evolutionary psychology provides us a hint for the reason why emotionally provocative and fear-evoking grotesque imagery captures consumers' attention. The faster attention to negative stimuli than to positive stimuli is an automatic tendency developed as means of evolutionary adaptedness for survival because negative stimuli signal danger and cause alert to prompt defensive reaction (Ohman, Flykt and Esteves, 2001; Schoemaker 1996; Tan 2008). Another explanation for grotesque imagery's attention grabbing power arises from our complex emotional system—i.e. human enjoys fearful horror or heartbreakingly sad films, because such negative emotions often stem from a challenging situation filled with risks, threats, and tension and generate an active interest in it (Bartsch, Apple and Stroach 2010; Oliver 1993; Tan 2008). Frightening, disgusting, or tragic emotions are mixed with a relief that comes after a perception of reality. Because human has an ability to distinguish their real life and the situation in the film or drama, we feel interests while being frightened or disgusted or heart-broken with pleasurable enjoyment (Tan 2008). Prior research by Phillips and McQuarrie (2010) brought to light the concept of grotesque in the context of fashion marketing. They described grotesque imagery using words with common etymological meanings—bizarre, surreal, deviant, absurd, discrepant, peculiar, and odd—and suggested that it could lead viewers to engage in the ad through transportation or immersion to the story world of the ad. Through the narrative transportation, grotesque imagery persuades consumers to better experience the brand featured in the ad. Based on their conceptualization of grotesque and its persuasive power, we empirically test whether grotesque imagery used in an ad might work as a strong trigger of fantasy, stimulating viewers to be transported into the narrative depicted in the ad image. Transportation Transportation is defined as ‘a convergent process where all mental systems and capacities become focused on events occurring in the narrative' (Green and Block 2000, p. 701); it represents the extent of absorption into the narrative flow of the story as it unfolds. Transportation occurs whenever the consumer experiences a feeling of entering a world brought to mind by the story, because of their empathy for the story characters and imagination of the story narratives (Van Laer et al. 2014). Previous research suggests that transportation induces favorable attitudes toward the related product (Escalas 2004), and enhances the persuasiveness of advertising messages through the connection between the self and the ad content (Escalas 2004). Fit Between Grotesque Imagery and Luxury Branding The effect of fit, which means a relevant and logical connection between ad contents, has been widely studied in advertising and marketing literature. Fit messages are readily accessible, and processed through simple cognitive information processes. Macinnis and Park (1991) argue that the fit effect is caused by consumers' perception of the stimuli in ads as a whole, rather than distinct individual elements. The processing of fit (vs nonfat) messages is easier, so more fluent (Lee and Aaker 2004; Labroo and Lee 2006), and fluent processing of fit messages offer a feel right experience (Camacho, Higgins, and Luger 2003; Lee, Keller, and Sternthal 2009). This subjective experience of feeling right increases engagement (Lee, Keller, and Sternthal 2009), willingness to pay, favorability of brand attitudes, and brand choice (Lee and Higgins 2009). In this research, we posit that persuasive effect of grotesque ads is more likely to occur when grotesque imagery is used for advertising luxury brands. Previous research explained the motivations to purchase luxury brands as scarcity, uniqueness, distance, high price (Dion and Arnould 2011; Dubois and Duquensne, 1993), and signaling of social status (Belk 1988; Zhou and Belk 2004; Han, Nunes, and Drèze 2010), which intersect with the characteristics of grotesque. People purchase luxury goods because they are relatively exclusive and limited, providing the consumer with more emotional distance from mass produced products (Hansen and Wänke 2011). In addition, positioning a brand using mythical and abstract concepts is known to be more effective in building strong prestigious brands (Arsel and Craig 2011). Because grotesque is perceived to be distant from reality, incongruent, and discrepant, these characteristics of luxury branding could overlap with that of grotesque. Furthermore, support for our prediction of a fit between grotesque imagery and luxury branding can be found in some other common features of both. Dion and Arnould (2011) argue that luxury brands possess hedonic appeals based on multisensorial pleasure, artistic aura, and charismatic stories which transport consumers into the magical world of the luxury brand. In support, Kim, Lloyd and Cervellon (2015) found that luxury brand advertising stimulates fantasy, and this is one of the dominant themes through which consumers were engaged with the brand. They showed that being part of the narratives in the ads, participants experienced escaping from their everyday lives, traveling around the fantasy world, and feeling that their myth, fantasies or dreams become real. As luxury brand advertising has a power to transport consumers into fantasy, grotesque imagery also carries consumers away into magical world through narrative transportation (Phillips and McQuarrie 2010). Hypotheses In light of the prior research, we posit that when grotesque imagery is used in ads for luxury brands, the fit generates feel right experience and easy and fluent processing of messages, because grotesque imagery and luxury brand advertising commonly have a power to transport viewers to fantasy world distant from reality. In addition, previous research has suggested positive downstream effects for transportation to enhanced brand experience. As the level of experience is enhanced, familiarity and satisfaction with the brand are heightened as well (Ha and Perks 2005). A deeper level of brand experience generates brand trust and accelerates loyalty to brands (Lglesias, Singh, and Batista-Goguet 2011). Thus, we propose the following hypotheses: H1: Luxury brand advertising with grotesque imagery will facilitate transportation, which will in turn enrich brand experience and increase purchase intention of the featured product. H2: There will be a perceived fit between grotesque imagery and luxury branding. H3: The fit between grotesque imagery and luxury branding will enrich brand experience which in turn enhance purchase intention. Study 1 The goal of Study 1 was to show that a grotesque ad is perceived to be better-matched with brands described as prestigious. Stimuli. We designed two versions of a print advertisement for a fictitious fashion brand to manipulate grotesque (vs. non-grotesque) ad style. We created the ad by modifying the content from an existing Jimmy Choo advertisement. The print ad featured a man, a girl, a car, and a handbag placed in the middle of a desert. In the grotesque imagery condition, the girl is placed in the truck of a car, appearing dead since the man sitting next to her is holding a shovel that he seemingly used to dig a hole in the ground to bury her. In the non-grotesque imagery condition, we replaced the shovel to a cane. In the prestige condition, we introduced the brand as one with a prestigious image similar to those of Louis Vuitton and Hermes. In the non-prestige condition, the brand was described as having a brand image similar to Zara and H&M. Procedure. 171 undergraduates (average age = 22.8 years; 171 females) participated in the study for a course credit. Participants were informed that they would be asked to complete an ad evaluation study, and were randomly assigned to be presented with one of the four print ads featuring a handbag. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they would be to purchase the handbag product (1 = very unlikely; 7 = very likely), and how well-matched the ad is to the product and the brand image on two items (‘the ad goes nicely together with the handbag' ‘the ad looks well-matched with the image of the brand'; 1 = not at all ~ 7 = very much). Then, they completed two item transportation measures (‘While I was looking at the ad, I could easily picture the events in it taking place,' ‘I had a vivid image of the man sitting next to the woman'; 1 = strongly disagree ~ 5 = strongly agree) adapted from Green and Brock (2000). Next, participants responded to twelve items of brand experience measure from Jos ̆ko Brakus, Schmitt, and Zarantonello (2009) (e.g. ‘This brand results in bodily experiences', ‘This brand stimulates my curiosity and problem solving'; 1 = strongly disagree ~ 7 = strongly agree). They also rated how grotesque the ad was on seven items (‘bizarre,' ‘surreal,' ‘deviant,' ‘absurd,' ‘peculiar,' ‘odd', ‘discrepant'; 1 = not at all ~ 7 = very much). To rule out an affective account for participants' evaluation, we assessed participants' mood (1 = negative mood, bad mood, sad, irritated ~ 7 = positive mood, good mood, happy, relaxed) and their arousal (1 = not at all aroused ~ 7 = very aroused). Results: Perceived fit. The two perceived fit items were averaged to form a fit index. A two (ad style: grotesque vs. non-grotesque) by two (brand reputation: prestige vs. non-prestige) between-subjects ANOVA revealed a significant ad style by brand reputation interaction effect (F(1, 167) = 5.69, p = .018). Planned contrasts indicated that, in the grotesque imagery condition, participants rated the ad as more well-matched when the product was described as a prestigious brand (M = 4.14) than when it was a non-prestigious brand (M = 3.53; F(1, 167) = 4.15, p = .043). In contrast, in the non-grotesque imagery condition, participants rated the ad as less well-matched when it was described as a prestigious brand (M = 3.60) rather than non-prestigious brand (M = 4.00), but the effect was not significant (F(1, 167) = 1.79, p = .183). Because the perceived fit results confirmed that participants rated the ad as more well-matched when the product was described as a prestigious brand, we created an imagery fit variable coding the well-matched conditions (grotesque imagery for prestige brand and non-grotesque imagery for non-prestige brand) to be 1, and the less well-matched conditions (grotesque imagery for non-prestige brand and non-grotesque imagery for prestige brand) to be 0. As predicted, an ANOVA revealed that the well-matched conditions showed higher perceived fit (F(1, 169) = 5.79, p = .017), such that those in the matched condition (M = 4.07) rated higher on perceived fit than those in the mismatched condition (M = 3.57). Transportation. Participants' ratings on the two transportation items were averaged to form transportation scores. A two way ANOVA revealed a significant ad style (grotesque vs. control) by brand reputation (prestige vs. non-prestige) interaction effect on transportation (F(1, 167) = 4.35, p = .039). Planned contrasts indicated that, in the grotesque condition, participants reported higher transportation scores when the product was described as a prestigious brand (M = 3.22) than a non-prestigious brand (M = 2.78; F(1, 167) = 4.28, p = .040). In contrast, in the non-grotesque condition, participants reported lower transportation scores when it was described as a prestigious brand (M = 2.62) rather than a non-prestigious brand (M = 2.81), but the effect was not significant (F(1, 167) = .78, p = .378). Mediation Effect of Transportation on Brand Experience. Participants' ratings on the brand experience scale were averaged to form brand experience scores. A series of regressions showed that the ad style by brand reputation interaction activated transportation (β = .632, p = .034), which then yielded greater brand experience (β = .360, p <.001). The bootstrap procedure for a conditional mediation model (PROCESS Model 7; Hayes 2013) using 5,000 samples revealed a significant conditional indirect effect of grotesque imagery on brand experience through activation of transportation when the product was described as a prestigious brand (95% CI [.067, .390]). This conditional indirect effect was not significant when the product was described as a non-prestigious brand (95% CI [–.189, .138]). Multiple Mediation Effect. Our prediction was that grotesque imagery used in luxury brand advertising would lead to higher perceived fit, which facilitates narrative transportation and in turn enhances brand experience leading to greater purchase intention. Multiple mediation analyses using PROCESS Model 6 (Hayes 2013) with 5,000 resamples confirmed that the perceived fit → transportation → brand experience path mediated the effect of imagery fit on purchase intention. The imagery fit variable was created as a binary variable (1 = grotesque imagery for prestige brand or non-grotesque imagery for non-prestige brand; 0 = otherwise). First, the path from imagery fit to perceived fit was significant and positive ( = .504, p = .017), as was the path from perceived fit to transportation ( = .149, p = .007), the path from transportation to brand experience ( = .326, p < .001), and the path from brand experience to purchase intention ( = .344, p = .014). The 95% CI of the bootstrap procedure ([.001, .030]) confirmed that the indirect effect of imagery fit on purchase intention through the three mediators—perceived fit, transportation and brand experience—was significant. Study 2 The objective of Study 2 was to test the robustness of the mediating role of transportation for the effect of grotesque imagery fit with luxury brand. In addition, we checked whether the grotesque manipulation affected the extent to which participants perceived the brand as luxurious. Stimuli. Two versions of print advertisement were created to manipulate grotesque (vs. non-grotesque) ad style by modifying an existing Dolce & Gabbana ad campaign. The print ad featured two women, a man, and handbags placed on the floor of a classically decorated room. In the grotesque imagery condition, one of the girls wearing a ball gown is holding a knife and seemingly about to stab another girl. In the non-grotesque imagery condition, we replaced the knife with a bottle of perfume. All participants were provided with the print ad that contained a cover story about the ad evaluation task, describing the brand as either a prestigious brand that is similar to Louis Vuitton and Hermes or a brand with an image that is similar to Zara and H&M. Procedure. 165 undergraduate students (average age = 23.8; 66 females) were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions. Participants were first asked to indicate how likely they would be to purchase the featured handbags (1 = very unlikely; 7 = very likely). Then, they responded to two transportation items (‘I wanted to learn how the story in the ad ended', ‘The story in the ad affected me emotionally', ‘I found myself thinking of ways the story in the ad could have turned out differently'; 1 = not at all ~ 5 = very much). Next, participants responded to the same twelve-item brand experience scale, seven item grotesque measure, four mood items, and an arousal item used in Study 1. In study 2, they were also asked to rate their impression of the product as luxurious, prestigious, and high class (1 = not at all; 7 = very much). Results. The grotesque manipulation did not affect the extent to which participants perceived the brand as luxurious, and when the product was described as a prestigious brand, participants in the grotesque condition reported higher transportation scores than those in the non-grotesque condition. Multiple mediation analyses reconfirmed that the transportation → brand experience path mediated the effect of imagery fit on purchase intention. General Discussion Through two studies, we demonstrated that grotesque ads can be effective in persuading consumers to purchase luxury fashion items. We found that grotesque ads trigger transportation when the brand is described as prestigious, enriching brand experience, and in turn heightening consumers' purchase intention.
The poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate)[P(AN-co-MA)] asymmetric membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method, and its membrane filtration performances were studied. The membrane casting solution having the different copolymer concentrations was prepared by directly dissolving P(AN-co-MA) copolymer in DMSO solvent and then appling NIPS method to form the P(AN-co-MA) asymmetric phase inversion membranes. The surface and cross-section SEM images and membrane filtration performances of the P(AN-co-MA) asymmetric membrane were discussed according to the copolymer concentration in casting solution. The P(AN-co-MA) copolymer is appropriate as a membrane making material because FT-IR result shows that P(AN-co-MA) copolymer has the typical component peaks of PAN backbone and hydrophilic carboxyl group. The SEM images of the prepared P(AN-co-MA) membranes show the typical asymmetric membrane structures i.e. porous surface structure and finger-like cross-section structure. The dead-end filtration experiments using pure water and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution show that a more dense membrane is prepared according as increase of copolymer concentration in casting solution because of the slowed exchange rate between solvent (DMSO) and non-solvent (water) in phase inversion. The prepared P(AN-co-MA) asymmetric membranes are suitable as the ultrafiltration separation membranes.
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An effects of a Reduction Zone of Rice Production Cost are an economic and a social effect within and outside of a reduction zone. An economic effects within a reduction zone are a reduction effect of a labour time and production cost and a increasing effect of an agricultural income. An economic effects are different, because a conditions of an agricultural production are different. So I analysis a 3 typies of economic effect according to a type of a reduction zone. An average reduction effect of a labour time per 10a is 41.6%(It is 48.1% in under-developed zone, 38.5% in mid-developed zone and 34.8% in developed zone). An average reduction effect of a production cost per 10a is 19.4%(It is 23.3% in under-developed zone, 18.7% in mid-developed zone and 16.4% in developed zone). An average increasing effect of an agricultural income is 20.8%(It is 22.4% in mid-developed zone, 20.7% in under-developed zone and 19.1% in developed zone).
본 연구는 유아 미술교육의 미술활동에 근본적으로 탐구활동이 내재되어 있음을 논의하는 것이다. 이 논의를 위하여 새로운 관점에서 예술론을 주장한 듀이의 경험개념을 기반으로 미술활동을 고찰하였다. 듀이는 경험이란 유기체가 세계와의 능동적이고 활발한 상호 교섭에 의하여 양적, 질적으로 성장하고 재구성되는 과정이라고 한다. 따라서 경험의 성장은 그 자체로 교육의 내재적 가치를 지닌다. 듀이는 예술론에서 미적 성질을 지닌 '하나의 경험'이라는 완결된 상태의 경험을 예술적 구성논리로 정의한다. 미술활동은 기본적으로 다양한 질성을 직접 경험하며 질성적 사고를 하는 활동이다. 예술가가 작품을 구상할 때는 질성적 경험에 의한 사고에 의해 표현하고자 하는 대상을 선택한다. 그리고 작품을 완성하는 과정에서는 총체적인 질성을 갖고 창작활동의 전체의 과정에서 변형하고 응축하며 여러 관계와의 관련성을 파악하는 반성적 경험의 사고를 한다. 따라서 예술가의 활동에는 질성적 사고와 반성적 사고 모두를 필요로 하는 탐구활동이 내재되어 있는 것이다. 즉 예술은 질성적 사고와 반성적 사고의 통합된 사고의 과정을 거쳐 '하나의 경험'을 이루는 완결된 경험으로서 창작 활동을 하는 것이다. 유아기의 아동들은 직접적인 체험을 통하여 다양한 질성을 경험함으로써 세상을 이해하고 지식을 얻는 방식을 갖는다. 이에 따라 본 연구에서는 유아 미술교육에 있어서 통합된 사고를 필요로 하는 미술활동을 탐구적인 관점에서 접근해야 하는 미술교육의 타당성에 대해 논하였다. 성장기 유아에게 탐구적인 학습 환경을 제공하는 것은 중요한 의미이며 미술활동의 수행 과정에서 발생하는 문제를 인식하고 해결하는 사고의 과정을 통하여 합리적이고 논리적인 사고로 경험의 확장을 이룬다. In this study, it is discussed that inquiry activities are fundamentally inherent in early childhood art activities. For this discussion, I studied art activities based on Dewey 's experience concept which claimed the art theory from a new perspective. According to Dewey, Experience is the process by which organisms grow and reconstruct quantitatively and qualitatively by transaction with the world. Therefore, the growth of experience itself has inherent value of education. Dewey defined the experience of the complete state of 'an experience' with aesthetic qualities as artistic component. Art activities are activities that basically experience various qualities directly and have qualitative thinking. When an artist designs an artwork, he or she chooses an object to express by thinking based on qualitative experience. In the process of completing a work, the painter has an overall quality and reflective thinking that grasps the relationship with various relationships in the whole process of creation. Therefore, the activity of the artist has an inquiry activity that requires both qualitative and reflective thinking. that is, art works through the process of integrated thinking of qualitative and reflective thinking as a complete experience of 'an experience'. Children in early childhood have a way of understanding the world and acquiring knowledge by directly experiencing various qualities. Thus, early childhood art activities are an excellent means of inquiry by qualitative thinking. It is important to provide an inquiring learning environment for early childhood and the infant undergoes a process of thinking that recognizes and solves problems that arise in the course of art activities. By doing so, the infant expands experience by reasoning and logical thinking.
For the purpose of contributing to the enhancement of boxing theories and techniques, this research aimed at revealing various functional changes and an ideal method of weight reduction when the subjects, six boxers at D University, reduced their body weights up to 8 percent, measuring three times-before and after weight loss and at recovery four hours after reduction. 1. Methods of weight Reduction by Group 1. Sauna Group (1) Running once a day at the work intensity of 70% ???O₂max. (2) Scheduled diet of 1877 Cal a day prepared by a nutritionist. 2. Kinds of Measurement 1. Physigue : Body height, body weight, girth of chest. 2. Fat by Underwater Body weight : Underwater body weight, residual lung volume, fat, LBM. body density. 3. General Endurance : Maximum oxygen Rptake, maximum heart rate, maximum ventilation. 4. Muscular Strength & Endurance : Left & right extension of maximum upper arm muscular strength, left & right extension of maximum upper arm muscular endurance(dynamic at the speed of once a second on the ⅓ load of the former) 3. Conclusion 1. The limit weight, one reduced by as much as 8 percent, was reached in sauna group after 8 days from 66.3 to 61.0 and in L. C. D. group after 9 days 65.7 to 60.4. 2. In general, in L. C. D. group, fat was lost more than LBM (Lean Body Mass), recovery was fast in oxygen uptake per kg of body weight and conceivable increase was seen in upper arm muscular endurance. In sauna group, nothing but the increase in maximum muscular strength was conceivable. 3. As for fat, more reduction was noticed in L. C. D. group (1.1kg, 20.8% of total weight loss) that in sauna group (2.0kg, 37.7% of total loss). 4. As for LBM, more reduction was seen in sauna group (4.2kg, 79.2% of total loss) than in L. C. D. group (3.3kg, 62.3% of total loss). 5. As to % gat, more reduction was shown in L. C. D. group (19% then in sauna group(15%). 6. As to maximum time of maintaining exercise, more insrease was revealed in L. C. D. group(33.8%, P<0.01) then in sauna group (18.4%, P< 0.01) between weiht loss and recovery periods. 7. As for maximum heart rate, no difference was shown in sauna group, while a reduction of 2 percent after weight loss and the of 3.4 percent at recovery were shown in L. C. D. group. 8. As for maximum oxygen uptake, a reduction of 2.44% in sauna group and that of 25.1% in L. C. D. group were noticed after weight loss, while an increase of 5.01% in sauna and that of 40.6% in L. C. D. group were conceived at recovery. 9. As to maximum oxygen uptake per body weight, an increase of 0.8% in sauna group and a decrease of 19.0% L. C. D. group were seen after weight loss, while an increase was shown in sauna group(0.6%) and in L. C. D. group(14.6%) at recovery. 10. As to ventilation, a decrease was revealed in sauna group (3.96%) and in L. C. D. group (14.2%) after weight reduction, while an increase was seen in sauna group (12.2%) and in L. C. D. group (15.8%) at recovery. 11. As for maximum respiratory rate, an increase in sauna group (1.5%) and a decrease in L. C. D. group (7.7%) were shown after weight loss, while an increase was noticed in sauna (1.5%) and L. C. D. group (10.0%) at recovery. 12. As for oxygen removal, an increase was seen in sauna (19.3%) and L. C. D. group (17.1%) after weight loss, and a growth was conceived only in sauna group (7.83%) at recovery 13. No significant difference was noticed in O₂ pulse, tidal volume, and respiratory quotient. 14. As to maximum of muscular strength, right upper arm a decrease was shown both in sauna (8.5%) and L. C. D. (9.0%) group, while in its counterpart were seen a reduction in sauna group (0.4%) and a increase in L. C. D. group (5.0%). 15. As to muscular endurance of right upper arm, a growth was revealed in sauna (36.3%) and L. C. D. group (77.2%) after weight loss, while in its counterpart was seen an increase in sauna (26.6%) and L. C. D. group (37.5%). At the timne of recovery, an increase was shown in sauna (31.4%) and L. C. D. group (9.3%) in right upper arm, while an increase in sauna group (26.7%) and a decrease in L. C. D. group (16.7%) were noticed in left upper arm. 4. Suggestion As for as body weight reduction is concerned, the method of low calorie diet is, in almost all respects, thought to be more economial and ideal than other methods including sauna bathing, especially in the matter of athletic performance.
근년 일본 사회에서는 매년 외국 국적 주민이 증가하여 일본인과 외국인의 다문화 공생 사회의 실현이 절실히 요구되고 있으며, 각 행정 기관과 교육 기관에서는 외국인과 유학생의 생활 및 의식에 관한 실태 조사를 활발히 실시되고 있다. 외국인의 대일관에 대해서는 지금까지 여러 가지 관점에서 조사를 실시하였지만, 양적인 조사가 많았기 때문에, 개인이 일본 사회와 일본인을 어떻게 접하고, 일본사회를 어떻게 이해하고 평가하는가에 대한 문제에 대해서는 밝혀지지 않은 점이 많다. 그러나 외국인의 대일관과 같이 질적으로 크게 변화하는 현상이나 다양한 문화 배경과 개인 배경을 가진 외국인의 대일관을 분석하기 위해서는 개인의 내면 세계를 분석할 필요가 있다고 생각된다. 설문지 조사법은 다수의 피험자 데이터에 대한 평균치를 분석 하는 연구 수법이지만, 특정한 개인의 심층 구조와 그 메카니즘을 분석하는 것이 아니다. 또한, 개인의 문화 배경이 다양한 외국인의 데이터를 평균치로 분석하면, 개인의 독자성이 잔차성분(殘差成分)으로서 제외되어, 표층적인 공통 부분의 분석에 머물 수밖에 없기 때문에 질적 변화를 일으키는 요인과 메카니즘의 해명은 어렵다. 본 연구에서 사용한 개인별 태도 구조 분석법(Analysis of Personal Attitude Construct: PAC 분석법)은 나이토(內藤)가 개발한 것으로, 1) 해당 테마에 대한 자유 연상, 2) 연상 항목간의 유사도 거리 행렬에 의한 클러스터 분석, 3) 피험자의 클러스터 구조의 해석을 통한 개인별 태도 구조를 분석하는 수법이다. PAC 분석법은 피험자가 자발적으로 항목을 만들어 내어 그것을 토대로 피험자 자신이 반응을 하기 때문에, 피험자의 자발성·자율성이 최대한 존중되며, 비교적 간단한 절차로 개인의 내면 세계를 인지적·정의적(情意的) 측면에서 분석할 수 있다. 사회심리학과 일본어교육학 관련 분야에서 PAC 분석법을 사용한 선행 연구로서는, 安 등(1995, 2004), 渡변 등(1994), 藤田 등(1996), 內藤(2000), 八若 등(2005), 八若(2006) 등을 들 수 있다. 이들 선행 연구의 결과에서 PAC분석법이 피험자 개인의 내면 세계를 분석하는데 유효하다 것, 피험자 개인의 데이터를 교육 현장에 대한 컨설테이션(Consultation)으로 활용할 수 있다는 것을 알았다. 최근에는 이문화간교육 분야에서도 외국인의 대일관 분석에도 PAC 분석법이 사용되고 있다. 본 연구와 같이 외국인의 대일관에 대해서 內藤(2000, 2004)는, 일본 대학에 재학중인 외국인 유학생을 대상으로 PAC분석법을 사용하여, 이문화 적응 문제에 대한 조사를 실시하여 유학생의 이문화 이해에 대한 요인을 분석하였다. 安(2008)은 한국인을 대상으로 일본 체재 1년 후와 그로부터 2년 반이 지난 시점에서 각각 대일관을 분석하였고, 安(인쇄중)에서는 교환 유학생으로서 일본 대학에 유학을 하여, 약 반년에서 1년간 배운 한국인 단기 유학생 4명을 대상으로 대일관을 분석하였다. 그 결과 한국인의 대일관에는 피험자 간에 공통점도 있지만 서로 다른 점도 많기 때문에, 같은 사례를 늘려서 검토할 필요가 있다는 것을 알았다. 그래서 본 연구에서는 약 1개월간 일본에서 직원 연수를 받은 후에 귀국한 한국의 대학 직원을 대상으로 그들의 대일관에 대한 조사를 실시하여 선행 연구와 비교해 보았다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. (1) 피험자 전원이 관념적인 일본인관을 가지고 있으며, 구체적인 경험과 객관적인 정보나 증명에 근거하기보다는, 막연한 이미지나 관념적인 언어에 의한 대일관·일본인관의 경향이 강하다. (2) 피험자 전원이 복잡한 대일관을 가지고 있으며, 일본과 일본인에 대해 좋은 점을 인정하면서도, 부정적이고 엄격한 평가를 하는 부분도 적지 않은 것을 볼 때, 상당히 복잡한 대일관을 엿볼 수 있다. (3) 한국인의 대일관에는 긍정적인 측면과 부정적인 측면이 함께 나타나며, 이 두 가지 대일관가 양립하고 있다. (4) 전체적으로 일본인의 외모, 양국의 관계, 역사 문제와 같이, 한국인이 일반적으로 가지고 있는 스테레오타이프화 된 대일관이 많다. (5) 선행 연구와 같이 피험자 전원이 일본인에 대한 신뢰감, 성격, 대인관계와 같은 일본인의 성격이나 정의적(情意的)인 부분에 많은 관심을 가지고 있다. (6) 그 외의 특징적인 대일관으로서는 선행 연구와 같이, 집단 속에서 룰을 중시하지만 프라이버시에서는 개인주의적인 행동을 선호하는 일본인상, 성(性)에 대해서 개방적인 일본인상, 남에게 폐를 끼치지 않고 남과 거리를 두는 일본인상 등이 나타나고 있으며, 이것에 대해서 부정적인 평가를 하는 경향이 있다. (7)긍정적인 대일관도 적지 않지만, 이것은 일본에서 받은 연수의 영향이 크다고 생각된다. 선행 연구(安: 2008, 인쇄중)와 공통점으로서는 일본인의 대인관계나 일본인의 성격에 대한 관심이 많고, 일본인의 본심을 알 지 못하기 때문에 친하기 어렵다고 느낀 점, 대일관을 한국과 비교하는 경향이 강한 점, 대일관에 대해 긍정적인 점과 부정적인 점이라는 서로 모순된 태도가 양립하고 있다는 점 등을들 수 있다. 그리고 선행 연구와 다른 점으로서는 이번 연구에서는 일본인의 외모에 대한 언급이 많았던점, 역사 문제, 정치 문제, 양국의 현안 문제 등에 대한 언급이 많았던 점, 일본인의 외모, 일본인의 생활스타일, 일본 사회에 대한 견해 등 한국에서 스테레오타이프화 된 대일관이 많이 나타난 점, 선행 연구(安:2008, 인쇄중)에서는 일본인, 일본인의 행동 등 개인 레벨의 일본인관이 많았지만, 이번 조사에서는 양국 관계에 관련된 사항 등 국가 차원의 대일관이 비교적 많이 나타난 점 등을 들 수 있다. 선행 연구에서는 피험자가 한 명을 제외하고는 모두 학생이고, 체재 기간도 반년부터 4년 이상으로 일본사회와 일본인을 접할 기회가 비교적 많았지만, 본 연구의 피험자는 전원이 사회인이고 체재 기간도 1개월 정도로 그다지 길지 않으며 접촉한 일본인도 한정되어 있다. 이러한 피험자의 속성과 체재 기간의 차이가 한국인의 대일관의 형성에 어떤 영향을 끼치는지에 대해서는 추적 조사가 필요할 것이다. 금후 체재 기간, 피험자의 연령과 직업, 체재 스타일, 체재 장소의 생활 환경, 체재 장소에서 접촉하는 일본인의 계층이 한국인의 대일관 형성에 어떤 영향을 주며, 그 대일관이 그 후 어떻게 변용(變容)되는지에 대해서도 검토할 필요가 있다고 생각된다. With the increase in the number of foreign residents in Japan, the creation of a multicultural society becomes a major objective, making local authorities and educational institutions to carry various surveys on living conditions and attitudes of foreign students in the country. Notwithstanding the great number of surveys on foreigners` attitudes toward Japanese people, most of them have a quantitative approach that cannot give much insight into the way each individual interacts with the Japanese society and people, or how he or she sees and appreciates the Japanese society. We, however, believe that in order to understand foreigners` attitude toward Japanese people, characterized by ever-changing qualitative traits and his or her complex cultural and personal background, it is important to turn our eyes to the internal structure of the individual`s personality. The questionnaire approach has an objective to collect and analyze a great number of averaged data and is not preoccupied with individuals` deeper personality. Further, when numerous averaged data are processed, deviations resulting form respondents` cultural backgrounds are routinely ignored, focusing only on superficial common traits, which makes it extremely difficult to define factors and mechanisms that cause qualitative change. This research utilizes the Analysis of Personal Attitude Construct (PAC) method, developed by Naito, which includes 1) free associations related to the topic, 2) cluster analysis based on the distance between association items, 3) respondents` comments on the extracted cluster structure, aimed at the understanding of the attitude structure of each individual respondent. In the PAC method, respondents are free to create items of their own and show their reactions to the items, which takes into account their individuality, thus allowing the researcher to grasp, while using a comparatively simple method, the cognitive and emotional aspects of respondents` inner world. Previous socio-psychological research utilizing the PAC method includes An et al.(1995, 2004), Watanabe et al.(1994), Fujita et al.(1996), Naito(2000), Hachiwaka et al.(2005), Hachiwaka(2006) as well as others. The results show that the PAC method is efficient for elaborating on each individual`s inner world and that such data can be a helpful resource for counseling in an educational environment. The PAC method has recently often been used in intercultural education research for exploring foreigners` attitudes toward Japanese people. Not unlike this paper, Naito(2000, 2004) uses the method to examine the attitude toward Japanese people of foreign students enrolled in Japanese universities, bringing up aspects of their intercultural adaptation and intercultural understanding factors. In An(2008) we compared Koreans` attitudes toward Japanese people 1 year after their arrival in Japan and again 2.5 years later, and in An(2008) (in press) we examined the attitudes of 4 Korean exchange students studying in a Japanese university between a half a year and 1 year. However, in this research of ours, together with some similarities in attitudes toward Japanese people we came upon some differences which convinced us that it is important to examine the same topic while increasing the number of respondents. The present research is centered on Korean university employees participating in a 1 month training course in Japan and compares their attitudes toward Japanese people with findings of previous research. Our survey showed the following results: (1) All respondents have a concept about the Japanese, their attitude toward Japan and its people being rather a vague conceptual image, then a concrete one, based upon experience and objective information, (2) All respondents have a complex attitude about Japanese people, acknowledging their positive traits while being critical to what they perceive as negative, (3) Respondents perceive in Japanese people both positive and negative traits, (4) Koreans' stereotypes remain strong about Japanese people's looks, bilateral problems and history, and influence their attitude, (5) Just like in previous research, respondents show interest in Japanese people's personal and emotional aspects like reliability, character, interpersonal relations, etc., (6) Concerning other aspects of Japanese personality the findings are similar to previous research: respondents perceive Japanese as people respecting group rules but individualistic in their private lives, with a liberal sex-attitude, reluctant to disturb others and keeping their distance, all these traits seen rater as being negative, (7) Respondents do perceive positive traits but in this they are hardly influenced by their training in Japan. A finding that resembles previous research (An(2008) (in press)) is the fact that respondents show strong interest in the Japanese character, that they find it difficult to tell the difference between what the Japanese say and what they really mean, that they like to compare their perception of Japanese and Korean people, and that they perceive contradicting positive and negative traits at the same time. What is different from previous research is the fact that respondents tended to touch upon the looks of the Japanese as well as problems of history, politics, and bilateral issues, and the fact that perception of Japanese looks, living-style and society was based on stereotypes. Further, in An ((2008)(in press)) respondents` attitudes were concerned with individual behavior of Japanese people, while in this survey the attitude derived rather from bilateral issues, etc., dealing with relations between countries rather then individuals. In previous research all respondents but one were students, residing in Japan from half a year up to more than 4 years, thus having supple chances to communicate with Japanese people, but the respondents of the present survey were all working people, staying in Japan for a period as short as 1 month, having rather scarce contacts with Japanese people. We find it necessary to carry this research further in order to find how background and residence history are influencing their attitude toward Japanese people. It will be crucial to make clear how factors like residence history, age, occupation, residence environment and contacts with the Japanese influence formation of attitude toward the Japanese in Koreans, and how this attitude changes as time goes.
The figure of apartment house estate is much depended on not only a natural factor, an artificial factor, and a legal constriction factor but also a developing subject. Among them the developing subject gives much influence to a figure decision of the apartment house estate. So because it makes a start point of a plan of the apartment house estate that the apartment house constructed by the public development is pursued a public interest and the apartment house by the private one a private interest respectively by the developing subject, there is a difference in the figure of the apartment housing estate. And under the premise that it influences in a construction factor of an estate formation, this study is started. The object of study is restricted to the hogher stories apartment house of over 10 stories, and I make 12 estates an object of this study such as a private apartment house of over 400 households and an apartment house that is offered for public subscription at the public authorities. Thus, in this study, I analyze a problem about the estate circumstances caused in a crowded space in establishing a direction of the plan of the desirable estate figure in the higher stories apartment house, and its result is as dollows. 1) The apartment house constructed by the public development is given priority to a plan of outside, and, on the other hand, the apartment house constructed by the private one a plan of inside space. 2) The figure of the apartment house constructed by the public development is quite diversified through a draft of public suscription for prize, but the almost apartment house constructed by the private fevelopment is emphasized on a simpie layout so the diversity is treated roughly. So, in the future, it is necessary to create a diversified figure of formation by harmonizing it to a topography positively. 3) The apartment house constructed by the public development prefers to an introduction of an encirclirg conception so the major buildings are laid to the point of view. On the other hand, the apartment house constructed by the private one prefers to a placement of southern exposure so the major buildings are laid to the point of view. 4) According to the figure of the apartment house estate, the apartment house constructed by the public devlopment is more advantageous than the apartment house constructed by the private one in a consideration about a privacy, a view, an individuality, and a domain, but in an approach, the apartment house constructed by the public one. 5) Because the uniform parallel placement becomes a factor that makes "I" conception emphasize in our conception, a charcteristics as an estate is to be maximized through the diversity of placement.
This thesis, through literary examinations, aims at clarifying volley ball life of An Jong Ho, a pathfinder of volley ball world in our country, and also at looking into the meaning and value in volley ball history. So this thesis leaded to the result as followings. First, in 1934, Jeilgobo(current kyungggi high school) Volley Ball Team won the championship and aroused self-esteem as a Korean. An Jong Ho took a role in the core power. Second, An Jong Ho could lead his team to winning in the 10th Myeongchisingung Competition in 1939. Third, afterwards, An Jong Ho participated in many competitions as a representative of Korean volley ball team and wined good results. Fourth, An Jong Ho created and leaded Namseon Electricity Volley Ball Team after the liberation, till he retired from the leader. When he was 41 years old, 1955, he retired from the leader when The 36th National Athletics Competition was held. Fifth, he lived his life as a volley ball leader; he took charge of a director in Namseon Electricity Volley Ball Team as well as in The Korea Highway Corporation Team, and , when 67 years old, he took charge of a coach in Ewha Women`s University Volley Ball team in 1981. Sixth, he made an effort to harmonize and develop volley ball persons; he, as a creative main member for establishing Korea Volley Association, took charge of important positions, from a director to a consultant. Seventh, he, as a board member of Korea Volley Ball Association, took charge of a director of trainee group of Runner Strengthening Committee, for the first time in Korean volley world. He got the license of game leader grade1 for the first time of volley persons. Eighth, he was a professional volley ball person as the first volley ball judge who made an effort to develop volley ball.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The succession by Representation occurs a lineal descendant or a brother or sister who would become an inheritor has died, or has become disqualified before the commencement of succession. Succession by Representation is generally approved in most countries. However along the history and social environment of each country, the forms of succession by Representation are differentiated individually.<BR> In korea, about the succession by Representation, there are Article 1001, 1003 (2).<BR> Article 1001 (Inheritance by Representation)<BR> Where a lineal descendant or a brother or sister who would become an inheritor in accordance with the provisions of Article 1000 (1) 1 and 3, has died, or has become disqualified before the commencement of succession, his or her lineal descendants, if any exist, shall become inheritors in the order in which the deceased or disqualified person would have become the inheritor.<BR> Article 1003 (Order of Inheritance of Spouse)<BR> (2) In the case mentioned in Article 1001, the spouse of the deceased or the disqualified person, before the commencement of inheritance, becomes a co-inheritor in the same order as the inheritors provided in the same Article. If there exists no inheritor, the spouse becomes the sole inheritor.<BR> And about the contributory portion, there is Article 1008-2.<BR> Article 1008-2 (Contributory Portion)<BR> (1) If there is a person among co-inheritors who has specially supported the inheritee through sharing living accommodations or providing nursing, etc. for a considerable period or has specially contributed to the maintenance or increase of the property of the inheritee, the value, calculated by deducting his contributory portion as determined by an agreement of co-inheritors from the value of property of the inheritee at the time the inheritance is commenced, shall be considered as an inherited property. The amount calculated by adding such contributory portion to the inherited portion calculated under Articles 1009 and 1010 shall be the inherited portion of that person. 〈Amended by Act No. 7427, Mar. 31, 2005〉<BR> (2) If co-inheritors fail to reach an agreement under paragraph (1), or if it is impossible to reach an agreement, the Family Court shall, upon the request of the contributor under paragraph (1), determine the contributory portion, taking into consideration the time, method and degree of the contribution, the value of the inherited property and other circumstances.<BR> (3) The contributory portion shall not exceed the amount calculated by deducting the value of testamentary gifts from that of property of the inheritee when the inheritance is commenced.<BR> (4) The request under paragraph (2) may be made when a request is made under Article 1013 (2), or as provided in Article 1014.<BR> The portion inherited by the person who becomes an inheritor in place of the deceased or disqualified person in accordance with the provisions of Article 1001 shall be that of the deceased or the disqualified person. And if the person who becomes an inheritor in place of the deceased or disqualified person, has specially supported the inheritee through sharing living accommodations or providing nursing, etc. for a considerable period or has specially contributed to the maintenance or increase of the property of the inheritee before death or ineligibility for inheritance himself, his contributory portion acknowledged as his own. and contributory after death or ineligibility for inheritance is the same.
이 논문은 우리가 디지털 애니메이션 영화를 대하며 마치 실제인 것처럼 실재감을 느끼는 이유에 대한 근본적인 해답을 구해 보려는 의도로 작성되었다. 디지털 애니메이션의 세계에서는 초사실적 주체들이 존재하고 사물들이 생명을 부여받아 각자의 역할을 해내고 있다. 또한 실제 세계 그 어디에도 존재하지 않는 대상들이 등장하며 그들은 시간적 담화로 결속되어 있다. 그들의 세계는 우리가 살고 있는 현실 세계를 그대로 옮겨놓은 것 같기도 하고 그렇지 않은 것 같기도 하다. 이 연구에서는 그런 디지털 애니메이션 영화의 세계가 지니는 실재를 상상적 현실의 실재, 존재적 사물의 실재 익명적 대상의 실재, 시간적 담화의 실재로 정의하고 그 실재성을 밝혔다. 실재성을 밝히기 위한 개념의 틀은 ‘사태 자체'에로 향하여 본질을 파악하려는 현상학의 철학적 진술에서 빌려왔다. 구체적으로 실재성을 규명하기 위해 빌려온 철학적 진술들은 후썰, 하이데거, 사르트르, 바슐라르, 메를로-풍티, 리쾨르에 의해 해명된 것들이다. 방법적으로 우리 존재와 세계 인식을 현상학적 관점에서 이해하고 이해한 원리를 디지털 애니메이션 영화의 세계에 대입하여 사례 제시와 함께 논의를 이루도록 했다. 이 연구의 의의는 디지털 애니메이션 영화의 근본적 의미를 새삼 돌이켜보고 그 가치를 가늠해보는 계기를 갖는데 있다. This paper was written for the purpose of seeking a radical answer to the reason why we feel an actuality while watching a digital animated film. In the world of digital animation, there exist surrealistic subjects and the objects, which have come been brought into life, play their own role there. Furthermore, objects, which do not exist anywhere in the real world, appear and are closely connected with each other by means of a time discourse. Their world seems to be identical to our world or not. This study defined an actuality of a digital animation world as an actuality of imaginary reality, an actuality of existent object, an actuality of anonymous object and an actuality time discourse, and examined such actuality. A frame of concept for examining the actuality was borrowed from philosophical statements of phenomenology that understands the nature of an actuality through 'zu den Sachen selbst'. Philosophical statements cited for searching an actuality specifically were those already explained by E. Husserl, M. Heidegger, J.-P. Sartre, G. Bachelard, M. Merleau-Ponty, and P. Ricoeur. Methodologically, this study attempted to understand our existence and recognition of the world in a phenomenological point of view, apply this principle to the world of a digital animation, and subsequently discuss it with the provision of examples. The purpose for this study is to reconsider the fundamental meaning of a digital animated film and evaluate its value.