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This experiment was performed in order to study the influence of adrenalectomy on the intestinal goblet cells of rats and the effects of some hormones on the cells of the adrenalectomized rats. Healthy adult rats weighing about 200g were divided into three groups: normal, adrenalectomized, and hormone-treated. Adrenalectomy was done under ether anaesthesia. The adrenalectomized rats were killed on the 3rd and 7th day after the operation and compared with those of sham operated. The hormone-treated group was further divided into adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisone, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and epinephrine sub-groups, and each kind of hormone was injected subcutaneously every day from the 8th post-operative day with a dose of 1.25 1U, 25 mg, I mg and 0. 1 mg per kg body weight respectively. The hormone-treated animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day from the beginning of the injection. All findings of hormone-treated groups were compared with those of saline injected group. Duodenal and colonic mucosae of experimental rats were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution, j embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned in 6 p thickness, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain for general findings and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, alcian blue pH 2. 5, alcian blue pH 1. 0 and combined alcian blue-PAS for the mucosubstance of goblet-cells. Observed results were as follows: 1. Adrenalectomy caused the decrease of mucosubstance in volume, coagulation or dissolution of mucosubstance of goblet cells. Histochemically, sulfated mucosubstance most sensitively responsed. 2. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone did not influence the mucosubstance of intestinal goblet cells in the adrenalectomized rats. 3. Administration of cortisone, deoxycorticosterone acetate or epineprine to the adrenalectomized rats caused an increase in volume of the neutral and acidic mucosubstances of intestinal goblet cells
머리 부분에 많은 양의 방사선을 조사 받은 흰쥐 뇌실막세포의 미세구조에 대하여 연구하였다. 체중 $200\sim250g$의 흰쥐를 실험동물로 사용하였고, 방사선 발생장치로는 Mitsubishi linear accelerator (ML-4MV)를 이용하였다. 실험군의 흰쥐는 sodium thiopental로 마취시킨 후 머리부분이 조사구역 $(30cm\times30cm)$ 안에 들도록 눕힌 후, 조사거리 80cm, 조사 깊이 1.2 cm의 조건에서 200 rad/min의 속도로 연속 조사하였다. 실험군에 따라 3,000 rad 또는 6,000 rad를 조사시킨 후 각각 6시간, 2일, 6일 후에 동물들을 희생시켰다. 희생시에는 마취된 흰쥐의 가슴을 열고 심장을 통한 관류고정을 시행하였고, 관류고정액은 1% glutaraldehyde-1% paraformaldehyde액을 사용했다. 고정된 뇌에서 가쪽뇌실벽 일부를 메어 관류고정액과 같은 고정액에 다시 고정한 후, 2% osmium tetroxide 액으로 이차고정 하였고, 이후 통상적인 방법으로 전자현미경 절편제작 및 염색과정을 거친 후 전자현미경으로 관찰한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. 방사선조사후 6시간군부터 뇌실막세포는 종창현상을 보였고 섬모의 배열이 흐트러졌으며 부분적으로 세포질이 뇌실공간으로 돌출하였다. 2. 방사선조사후 2일군부터는 뇌실막세포의 종창현상이 심하며 뇌실막밑조직의 부종이 심했다. 3. 뇌실막세포의 돌출부분 세포질에는 섬모바닥체, 사립체, 세포질세망들이 들어 있었다. 4. 방사선조사군에서는 확장된 뇌실막세포사이공간을 통하여 뇌실막밑층의 축삭성분 등이 뇌실속 까지도 돌출하였다. 이와 같은 결과로 보아 방사선조사에 의해 뇌실막세포에는 심각한 형태학적 변화가 초래되며, 이로써 뇌실질과 뇌척수액사이의 대사관문이 교란될 것으로 생각된다. Ultrastructure of the ependymal cells of X-irradiated rats on their head were studied. Rats weighing $200\sim250gm$ were X-irradiated on their head and neck areas. Total exposures were 3,000 rads or 6,000 rads depending on experimental groups. And irradiated rats were sacrificed on 6 hours, 2 days and 6 days following the radiation exposures. Animals were perfused through the heart with 1% glutaraldehyde-1% paraformaldehyde solution, under ether-anesthesia. The tissues from the wall of lateral ventricles were fixed in the 2% osmium tetroxide solution. The results observed with electron microscope were as follow: 1. In 6 hours group, many ependymal cells were swelled, luminal portions of cytoplasms of some cells protruded into the ventricular lumen, and many cilia were lost or irregularly altered. 2. In 2 days group, ependymal cells were swelled more severely and subependymal edema were pronounced. 3. Protruded cytoplasm contained usually basal bodies of cilia, groups of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticula , etc. 4. Following X-irradiations, some protruded masses contained neural elements including the axon terminals with dense core vesicles. Axons and axon terminals were also found in the enlarged intercellular spaces among ependymal cells. From the above results, the heavy irradiation on the head area of the rat induced alteration of the ependymal cells lining the lateral ventricle. Hence the ependymal functions of selective barrier, protective barrier, and metabolic barrier could be altered following X-irradiation on the head.
To investigate the connections between the major limbic structures and the nucleus accumbens septi or the nucleus fundus striati, stereotaxic surgeries were performed. One group of the rats were electrically lesioned in the mamillary body, and the other group were extirpated their hippocampal formation. Careful study of both nuclei following each surgery showed the following results. 1. Nerve terminals of mamillo-accumbens tract were synapsed to the dendrite of nucleus accumbens cell, whereas the neuronal type of accumbens-mamillary tract was aspiny cell. 2. Nerve terminals of mamillo-fundus tract were synapsed to the spines of fundus striati cells. Fundus-mamillary tract cells were not confirmed. 3. Nerve terminals of hippocampo-accumbens terminals were synapsed to the dendrites and spines of nucleus accumbens cells, whereas the neuronal type of accumbens-hippocampal tract was spiny one. 4. Nerve terminals of hippocampo-fundus tract were synapsed to the spines of fundus striati cells, whereas the neuronal types of fundus-hippocampal tract was aspiny one. 5. From the results, it was concluded that both of the nucleus accumbens septi and the fundus striati have connections with the mamillary body and the hippocampus. But nucleus accumbens septi has apparently more intimate relationship with major limbic structures.
Comparative study on the synaptic types of the nuclei accumbens septi and fundus striati of the chick and the rat was carried out. Basic synaptic types were established according to the size of synaptic vesicles, development of synaptic vesicles, development of synaptic thickening, kind of postsynaptic structures, etc. Comparing the synaptic types and appearance-ratio within the neuropils, the following results were obtained (see the data in the Table 1). 1. In the nucleus accumbens of the rat, the axo-spinous synapses are far less than those in the nucleus fundus striati (13.7%/68.2%). 2. In the nucleus accumbens, there found much more axo-dendritic types(II, III and V) than those appearing in the nucleus fundus striati(79.1%/27.1%). 3. In the nucleus accumbens of the chick, on the contrary to the case of the rat, more axo-spinous types(70.1%/31.4%) and less axo-dendritic types(12.3%/60.0%) were found as compared to those appearing in the nucleus fundus striati. 4. There found no large-sized synaptic vesicles in the chick nuclei accumbens septi and the fundus striati.
There's been arguments on the different morphological status between the nucleus accumbens septi and nucleus fundus striati of ventral striatum. Authors carried out the comparative study on the neuronal cell types of these nuclei, in the chick and the rat. Results are summarized as follows: In the nucleus accumbens septi of the chick, there found 3 main cell types. Type I cells are oval or spindle-shaped. They are the most abundant cell types, comprising more than 80% of neurons. The pale nucleus is usually indented. The cytoplasm is also pale and contains small amount of mitochondria, rough r-ER and Golgi complexes. This cell has a few symmetric synapses on the cell membrane. Type II cells are pale large cells. They are polygonal or irregularly-shaped. They contain pale spherical nucleus, and the pale cytoplasm with relatively large amount of mitochondria, free ribosomes and well-developed Golgi complexes. Some axo-somatic synapes are found on the cell. Type III cells are oval or spherical-shaped. The nucleus is relatively pale and large, In the dense cytoplasm, well developed. r-ER formed typical Nissl's body, and there found many mitochondria, ribosomes and lysosomes. In the chick fundus striati nucleus, there also found 3 main cell types. Type I cells are small and spindle-shaped. This type is the most abundant one and constitutes more the 80% of the neurons. Morphological features other than it's shape, is generally similar with that of Type I cell in the nucleus accumbens. Type II cells are irregularly shaped large cells. Dense cytoplasm contains large amount of cell organelles. Some axo-somatic synapses are found. Type III cells are small dense cells. This oval cell contains the oval nucleus, and the plentiful cytoplasm with well developed r-ER, ribosomes and mitochondria. In the nucleus accumbens septi of the rat, there found 4 main cell types. Type I cells are small, oval or spherical cells, comprising more than 90% of all the neurons. Spherical nucleus shows typical chromatin rim along the nuclear membrane. Dense cytoplasm contains many ribosomes and mitochondria. Type II cells are large oval cells. The eccentric nucleus is deeply invaginated. Pale cytoplasm contains large amount of ribosomes, Golgi complexes, mitochondria, and dense bodies. Type III cells are pale, large, oval cells. They contain moderate amount of ribosomes and mitochondria, and some scattered stacks of r-ER. Type IV cells are small pale cells. Small oval nucleus is indented and shows chromatin rim. Only small amount of ribosomes and mitochondria can be found. In the nucleus fundus striati of the rat, there also found 4 main cell types. Type I cells are spherical or oval cells, comprising more than 90% of the neurons. The chromatin rim of the spherical nucleus is not so prominent as compared to the rim of type I cell in the nucleus accumbens septi. The cytoplasm contains moderate amount of mitochondria, ribosomes and some scattered r-ER. A few axo-somatic synapses were found. Type II cells are small round or polygonal cells. Golgi complexes are especially well-developed in this cell type. The cytoplasm also contains moderate amount of mitochondria, ribosomes, and dense bodies. Type III cells are small cells. The large nucleus shows prominent chromatin rim. The cytoplasm contains many ribosomes and mitochondria. Type IV cells are large, spheircal or oval cells. The nucleus is deeply indented. The plentiful cytoplasm contains large amount of ribosomes, mitochondria, Golgi complexes, neurotubules, but not r-ER. In the present study, it is clear that the nucleus accumbens septi and the nucleus fundus striati are independant cell groups, according to their cytoarchitectonics and the ultrastructural features of their cell types.
In this study, cerebral functional laterality patterns of medical students in the year 2005 were compared with those in the year 1995. Questionnaires on the behavior patterns were asked, and the laterality patterns were classified as right hemispheric (R)-balanced hemispheric (B)-left hemispheric (L). 385 students were studied (210 male and 175 female). Of the 3 categories, male students showed the patterns of R (42.8%), B (31.9%) and L (25.3%). Female students showed R (45.2%), B (30.9%) and L (23.9%). As the above result shows, laterality patterns of male and female were similar. The above data were compared with the another data in the article reported in 1995. Previous report showed that R (63.5%), B (24.9%) and L (11.6%) in the male students, and R (49.0%), B (22.4%) and L (28.6%) in female students, respectively. From the above results, It was suggested that cerebral laterality patterns of medical students in the year 2005 shifted toward left, but it still remained 42~45% in right hemispheric as contrast to 24~25% in left hemispheric. Hemispheric shift was interpreted as that, it may be the result of student’s adaptative or competitive activities in the fast changing social environment. 특정 학생집단의 전반적인 뇌기능 성향을 아는 것은 교육적으로도 큰 의의가 있다고 생각된다. 이 연구 는 의과대학 학생들에게 설문형식을 통해서 뇌기능의 편재성향을 알아보고, 10년 전에 시행한 연구 결과와 비교 하여 어떤 변화를 보이는지 알아보았다. 35개 설문 문항에 대해 오른쪽 뇌 성향과 왼쪽 뇌 성향에 맞는 대립 문항을 설정하였으며, 각 문항에서 한 개 씩만 택하게 한 다음, 강한 오른쪽 뇌형(ER, extremely right), (보통)오른쪽 뇌형(R, right), (오른쪽과 왼쪽) 균형 뇌 형(B, balanced), (보통) 왼쪽 뇌형(L, left), 강한 왼쪽 뇌형(extremely left, EL)으로 구분하여 편재성의 정도를 구별 하였으며 분석 결과는 다음과 같았다. 총 385명(남학생 210명, 여학생 175명)의 설문에서 남학생집단은 오른쪽 42.8%-균형 31.9%-왼쪽 25.3%였고, 여학생은 오른쪽 45.2%-균형 30.9%-왼쪽 23.9%로서 남학생과 여학생의 뇌기능 편재성이 매우 유사하였다. 1995 년 의과대학 학생을 대상으로 조사한 결과에서는 남학생은 오른쪽 63.5%, 균형 24.9%, 왼쪽 11.6%였고, 여학생은 오른쪽 49.0%, 균형 22.4%, 왼쪽 28.6%의 분포를 보여서 남학생의 오른쪽 뇌 편재성이 특히 강했었다. 이상의 결과를 종합해 보면 의과대학생들의 뇌기능 편재성은 1995년에는 오른쪽 뇌형이 압도적으로 많았으나, 10년이 지난 현재에는 그 경향이 많이 완화되었다고 생각되며, 이와 같은 변화는 그동안 빠르게 진행되어온 사회 변화와 더욱 심화된 경쟁사회 등의 상황과 관련이 있지 않을까 추측 된다.