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In this study, a temperature distribution sensing method using optical fiber was applied to a large-scale levee experiment, and the applicability of wide-area levee or embankment monitoring technology to observe the changes inside the levee was reviewed. The optical fiber was buried in a large-scale levee, and the temporal and spatial temperature changes were measured according to the water level changes in the reservoir. As the water level of the reservoir increased, the temperature of the embankment slope decreased, and as the infiltration progressed, a change in the spatial location of the temperature change was detected. The temperature change due to embankment infiltration varied depending on the time of the infiltration progress, and the change assumed to be the seepage line could be observed. This study has demonstrated that information about temperature changes inside the levee can be interpreted as the information on the locations that are judged to be relatively vulnerable, investigating the changes in the condition inside the levee. 본 연구에서는 광섬유를 활용한 온도분포 센싱 방법을 실규모 제방 실험에 적용하여, 제방의 사면과 제체 내부의 변화를모니터링하는 광역형 제방 모니터링 기술의 적용성을 검토하였다. 실규모 제방에 광섬유를 매립하고 저류지의 수위 변화에 따른제체 내부의 시간적, 공간적 온도 변화를 측정하였다. 저류지 수위가 증가함에 따라 제방 사면의 온도는 감소하였으며, 침투가진행되면서는 온도 변화가 나타나는 공간적 위치의 변화가 감지되었다. 제방 침투로 인한 온도 변화는 침투 경과 시간에 따라차이가 나타났고, 침윤선으로 추정되는 변화를 관찰할 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해 제방 내부의 온도 변화에 대한 정보는 제방내부의 상태 변화를 판단하고 상대적으로 취약하다고 판정되는 지점에 대한 정보로 해석될 수 있음을 증명하였다.
This article investigated the relationship between women and high prevalence rate for eating disorders. Using Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa as examples, the inquiry focused on specific risk factors within the context of dysfunctional parent-child emotional dynamic. The discussion ended with a conclusion that while prevalence and some aspect of eating disorders reflect the socio-cultural emphasis on slender body and the connection between body image and self-esteem, causes of specific eating disorders are more deeply rooted with important intrapsychic origins. Beginning with lack of parental responsiveness reflected in the feeding behavior of the early parent-child relationship, a dysfunctional family dynamic, around the onset of adolescent girls' bid for separation and individuation with rigid, achievement motivated, and highly controlling, and yet lacking emotional empathy, is discussed. Symptoms of eating disorders, while self-destructive in nature, therefore, are thought to reflect an attempt to assert sense of control albeit on a primitive level, within a highly enmeshed parent-child relationship.context
The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-school teacher's attachment style and determine Its implications for the nature of teacher-student relationship and child adjustment. In addition to their role as educator, teachers also play the role of auxiliary attachment figure to children in the pre-school context. In the day-to-day life of preschooler, teacher inevitably provides emotional nurturing and a secure base, with which young child copes with separation from his/her mother and focus on learning and negotiating with social and interpersonal tasks. Attachment style may influence the way in which teacher functions as emotional nurturer perhaps with teacher with insecure attachment style approaching the role with ambivalence and experiencing some distress. In turn, teacher attachment style will impact on the nature of teacher-child relationship as well as on child adjustment. In order to test these hypotheses, a total of 370 3, 4, and 5 year-old children, their mothers and pre-school teachers participated in the study. Teachers tilled out self-report questionnaires about their attachment style, quality of teacher-student relationship, and child adjustment. Child adjustment was also assessed by maternal observation. Results indicated that there was a significant relationship between teacher attachment style and the nature of teacher-child relationship. Specific findings also indicated a significant relationship between teacher attachment style and child adjustment. These findings provided useful information regarding the variables that may account for effective teacher attitude and optimal teacher-child relationship that promote healthy social-emotional adjustment of preschool children.
The uncertainty of flow measurements obtained by the float method is evaluated following the international organization for standardization (ISO) 748 guideline. However, the standard uncertainty of an average flow rate has not been considered and the quantitative uncertainty has never been computed for flow measurements made using the float method. Therefore, in this study, a stream-scale experiment was performed to estimate the standard uncertainty of the mean flow velocity by considering the flow velocity uncertainty of floats. The results demonstrated that the standard uncertainty of the mean flow velocity measured by a surface float was 15.30%, while that measured by a rod float having a 50-cm draft was 11.05%. Through these results, the measurement uncertainty of discharge was evaluated according to the GUM (guide for the expression of uncertainty in measurement) method. The measurement uncertainty was then evaluated considering the standard uncertainty of the mean flow velocity. The measurement uncertainty of the discharge was increased by 3.4% as compared with that calculated without considering the standard uncertainty.
International migration of people has risen exponentially during the past two decades. Many people travel abroad for business purposes, sightseeing, volunteer activities, immigration, education, missonary work, etc., and are exposed to vectorborne and food or water-borne parasitic diseases, especially when they are traveling to the tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recently, imported parasitic diseases have also increased in Korea due to frequent traveling by the local residents or entry of foreign workers to the country. According to the statistics from 1970 to 2008, malaria (727 cases) was the most frequently imported parasitic disease in Korea followed by gnathostomiasis (42 cases) and hydatidosis (31 cases). From 1970 to 2010, cases of ancylostomiasis (1 case), angiostrongylosis (15 cases), babesiosis (8 cases), cutaneous larva migrans (8 cases), cutaneous myiasis (2 cases), cyclosporiasis (1 case),heterophyiasis (2 cases), leishmaniasis (28 cases), loiasis (3 cases), pentastomiasis (1case), schistosomiasis (13 cases), and syngamosis (1 case) have also been reported. Travelers to Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America should be on alert against malaria and other tropical diseases. National surveillance for imported diseases started in 2001 by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This article reviews imported parasitic diseases in Korea with review of literature.
Malaria is an arthropod bome parasitic disease via Anopheles sp. mosquito. About 200 million malaria cases are reported every year throughout the world. And two million deaths of falciparum malaria per year are serious problems. In Korea, tertian malaria(Plasmodium vivax) has been present with low endemicity until 1940s. During the Korean War, 1950-1953, malaria state in Korea was worsend. After war, National Malaria Eradication Programme was started in collaboration with WHO on 1960. Indigenous malaria was not reported any more in Korea after the mid-1970s except imported cases. One indigenous malaria by Plasmodium vivax was detected in 1993. The patient was a 23-Y-O young man who worked at Military Service in north Kyonggi-do, near DMZ(Demilitarized Zone). The annual number of vivax malaria has increased sharply to 25 in 1994, 107 in 1995, 356 in 1996, 1724 in 1997 and 2632 persons until August 1998. Reemergence of malaria is localized in north Kyonggi-do and Kangwon-do, near DMZ. Patients of 81.4% was army soldiers and veterans. It might be the origin of malaia in South Korea was infected mosquitoes flied from North Korea through DMZ. But we have no information of malaria in North Korea and more precise epidemiologic study will be needed in near future.