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        • KCI등재

          국제 전자상거래에서 발생하는 소비자분쟁의 중재 활용을 위한 중재법 개정방안

          안건형 한국무역상무학회 2019 貿易商務硏究 Vol.81 No.-

          본 연구에서는 전자상거래에서 발생하는 소비자분쟁의 중재 활용방안을 모색하기 위해 Ⅱ장에서 국제기구들의 최신 동향을 살펴보고, Ⅲ장에서는 주요 선진국들(미국, 일본, 독일)의 소비자중재 관련 입법 및 판례 등을 검토하며, Ⅳ장에서 국제 전자상거래에서 발생하는 소비자중재의 활용을 위한 우리 「중재법」 제8조(중재합의) 개정방안을 제시하고자 한다. 나아가 국제무역 실무의 제도 및 관행을 통한 해결방안에 대해서도 검토하여 시사점을 도출하고자 한다. As cross-border e-commerce transactions grow, the possibility of having disputes between online traders and consumers also increase thereupon. However, considering most cross-border e-commerce transactions involved low-value and high-volume transactions, available dispute resolution methods appears practically inappropriate or inapplicable to resolve this kind of disputes. International communities such as the EU and the UNCITRAL sought for solutions but somehow failed. In the case of EU, it enacted the EU Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Directive and Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Regulation. Furthermore, the EU provides an ODR platform by activating a website as a single point of entry, free of charge, for all cross-border e-commerce cases. The ODR platform, however, has a limit as only applies to their member countries and only provides a mediation process, excluding arbitration. The UNCITRAL also sought to promulgate a set of international uniform rules to govern relevant matters concerning consumer disputes arising from cross-border e-commerce but it ended in failure, mainly because the member countries could not agree on whether to allow a mandatory pre-arbitration agreement provided in the form of an adhesion contract suggested by online traders. Under these circumstances, this paper examines some of the major leading countries’ relevant laws and case laws. Also highlighting some insights utilizing the well-established international trade practice to solve these problems, this paper suggests recommendations on how to revise the Arbitration Act of Korea and, make the application of consumer arbitration available for cross-border e-commerce disputes.

        • KCI등재

          미국 소비자금융보호위원회(CFPB)의 2015년 「중재연구 의회보고서」의 내용과 시사점

          안건형,AHN, Keon-Hyung 한국무역상무학회 2018 貿易商務硏究 Vol.77 No.-

          The United States of America is one of the most favoring countries in which mandatory pre-arbitration clauses in the form of adhesion contract have been widely recognized and supported by courts and the Federal Arbitration Act. However, after the financial crisis in 2008 and the National Arbitration Forum scandal in 2009, in enacting the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act ('Dodd-Frank Act'), Section 1028(a) of the Act requires the newly created Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to provide Congress with a report on "the use of agreements providing for arbitration of any future dispute between covered persons and consumers". Section 1028(b) also grants the CFPB the authority to "prohibit or impose conditions or limitations on the use of an agreement between a covered person and a consumer for a consumer financial product or service providing for arbitration of any future dispute between the parties, if the Bureau finds that such a prohibition or imposition of conditions or limitations is in the public interest and for the protection of consumers." Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFPB issued a report entitled "2015 Arbitration Study: Report to Congress 2015 (Report)" in March 2015. This paper examines some major legal issues of the Report and makes a few recommendations for Korean financial institutions which entered into the U.S. financial market or has a plan to do so in the near future.

        • KCI등재

          Metal ion capacitor composed of the thin-walled surfaces enabling high-rate performance and long cycling stability

          안건형 한국물리학회 2020 Current Applied Physics Vol.20 No.5

          Electrochemical capacitors (referred to as supercapacitors) have high power density, long cycling stability, and are eco-friendly for use in electronic applications. The proper and stable utilization of supercapacitor systems can expand the practical scope of energy-powering applications in various device platforms. Nevertheless, the low energy density of conventional oxide and sulfide electrode materials still limits the practical realization of supercapacitor devices in real electronic applications. This limitation results from the poor surface stability, structural collapse, and low electrical conductivity of the oxide and sulfide materials. Single metal electrodes with multivalent metal ions exhibit promising energy-storing kinetics and may be viable alternatives to these oxide and sulfide electrode materials. Here, we report a metal zinc (Zn) electrode supercapacitor (ZIC) consisting of a thin-walled architecture as an electrode by means of a voltage-controlled electroplating method. The optimized ZIC exhibited excellent pseudo-capacitive performance, excellent high-rate performance, and an outstanding cycling stability.

        • KCI등재

          아연-이온 전기화학 커패시터의 에너지 저장 성능향상을 위한 다공성 전극 제조

          안건형 한국재료학회 2019 한국재료학회지 Vol.29 No.8

          Zn-ion supercapacitors (ZICs) show high energy densities with long cycling life for use in electronic devices. Porous Zn electrodes as anodes for ZICs are fabricated by chemical etching process using optimized conditions. The structures, morphologies, chemical bonding states, porous structure, and electrochemical behavior are examined. The optimized porous Zn electrode shows a root mean square of roughness of 173 nm and high surface area of 153 μm2. As a result, ZIC using the optimized porous Zn electrode presents excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance of 399 F g−1 at current density of 0.5 A g−1, high-rate performance (79 F g−1 at a current density of 10.0 A g−1), and outstanding cycling stability (99 % after 1,500 cycles). The development of energy storage performance using synergistic effects of high roughness and high surface area is due to increased electroactive sites by surface functionalization of Zn electrode. Thus, our strategy will lead to a rational design and contribute to next-generation supercapacitors in the near future.

        • KCI등재

          An Introductory Study on the Draft Hague Rules on Business and Human Rights Arbitration

          안건형,문희철 한국중재학회 2019 중재연구 Vol.29 No.3

          An issue of human rights abuse in business emerged as a serious social problem recently not only in Korea, but also worldwide. However, the stipulations in ‘UNGPs’ and ‘OECD Guidelines’ do not provide a legally binding dispute settlement mechanism. Under these circumstances, it is very well timed that the Working Group on International Arbitration of Business and Human Rights recently published the Draft Hague Rules on Business and Human Rights Arbitration, which will be launched in December 2019 as an effective and efficient alternative to mediation or court litigation. This paper examines the purpose, the structure, and the unique features of the Draft Hague Rules, among other provisions, including 1) Inequality of Arms between the Parties, 2) Appointing Authority, 3) Presiding Arbitrator’s Qualification, 4) Evidentiary Procedures, 5) Remedy, and 6) Governing Law.

        • KCI등재

          $TiO_2$기반 복합 나노선을 이용한 리튬이온 배터리의 전극 특성 연구

          안건형,안효진,An, Geon-Hyoung,Ahn, Hyo-Jin 한국마이크로전자및패키징학회 2011 마이크로전자 및 패키징학회지 Vol.18 No.3

          우리는 전기방사법을 이용하여 $TiO_2$-Ag 복합 나노선 전극을 성공적으로 합성 하였으며 그들의 전기화학적 특성 및 구조 사이의 관계를 주사전자현미경(FESEM), 투과전자현미경(TEM), X-선 회절(XRD), X-선 광전자 분광법(XPS) 및 cycler에 의하여 규명하였다. 특히 $TiO_2$-Ag 복합 나노선 전극의 전기화학 특성은 순수한 $TiO_2$ 나노선 전극 및 나노입자(P25, Degussa)와 비교하였을 때 우수한 전기화학적 결과를 얻었다. 따라서 $TiO_2$ 나노선 전극 안에 Ag nanophases의 도입은 리튬이온 배터리를 위한 나노선 전극의 수명 및 용량을 향상 시킬 수 있다. we successfully synthesized $TiO_2$-Ag composite nanowires via an electrospinning method and investigated the relationship between their electrochemical properties and structures by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cycler. It is shown that the $TiO_2$-Ag composite nanowires exhibit superior electrochemical properties when compared to the single $TiO_2$ nanowires and $TiO_2$ nanoparticles (P25, Degussa). Therefore, the results indicate that the introduction of Ag nanophases within the electrospun $TiO_2$ nanowires could be improved the capacitance and cycleability of electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

        • KCI등재

          A way to increase K-SURE’s export insurance recoveries through arbitration by subrogation

          안건형,김필준 한국무역학회 2016 Journal of Korea trade Vol.20 No.4

          Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to utilize the concept of arbitration by subrogation as a means to increase recoveries of indemnities paid out to exporters or any financial institutions by K-SURE, an export credit agency of Korea, against possible non-payment or breach of obligations from the buyer or the buyer’s country. It looks into the possibility of K-SURE and KCAB reactivating its 2004 MOU to give more jurisdictional protection to K-SURE’s indemnities recovery transactions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper first introduces a brief elucidation about export insurance provided by K-SURE and the necessity of arbitration in the export insurance, and a summary of a subrogation arbitration case referred to the KCAB by K-SURE in 2005. Cognizant of the 2004 MOU between K-SURE and KCAB, as well as the foreign and domestic developments in arbitration, the paper then analyzes legal principles of subrogation by insurer, as well as domestic and overseas precedents on the matters of assignment of claim and arbitration by subrogation. Findings – While it appears that there is still no universally recognized authority nor established court precedents applying arbitration by subrogation, the authors discovered that similar to Korea, most of leading courts in the world have consistently held that the assignee can request and be requested for arbitration pursuant to the arbitration agreement contained in the assigned contract. The paper concludes that the K-SURE now can be admitted as a party having proper standing in the arbitration proceedings so long as the specific claim right under the contract which includes the arbitration agreement is assigned to the K-SURE. Originality/value – This paper suggests a possible plan to increase recoveries in export insurance. The outcome of the research is expected to enhance the arbitration system on the back of increasing numbers of arbitration related to export insurance, to improve the balance sheet of K-SURE and ultimately, to help the Korean economy by collecting export insurance recoveries which will lead to saving Korean people’s tax.

        • KCI등재

          2011 프랑스 개정 민사소송법의 주요 내용과 시사점

          안건형,유병욱 한국민사소송법학회 2011 民事訴訟 : 韓國民事訴訟法學會誌 Vol.15 No.2

          It has been passed thirty and thirty one years since domestic and international arbitration decrees in French Civil Procedure Code were passed, respectively. For decades, France has been considered the most arbitration-friendly jurisdiction throughout the world. On 13 January, 2011, France issued a new decree revising the provisions of the French Civil Procedure Code pertaining to arbitration (hereinafter the “Decree”) which entered into force on 1 May, 2011. This paper principally discuss the major revised contents, focusing on French International Arbitration Law in the Decree and the lessons which the Decree holds for the Arbitration Act of Korea. It was found that the purpose of the Decree was primarily designed to capture the well-established pro-arbitration case law the French courts have developed over decades and enshrine them in the Decree. Furthermore, the Decree also introduces significant innovative provisions which aim at attracting parties to international arbitration to French seats even if the there is no connection between the case and France. The Decree also minimizes intervention of the national courts and increases the freedom to tailor the arbitral proceedings to parties’ wishes. In-depth examination of these classical and innovative position of the Decree will certainly serve as a source of inspiration for the revision of the Arbitration Act of Korea in the near future.

        • KCI등재

          산소환원반응 촉매용 질소 도핑된 탄소나노섬유의 제조

          안건형,이은환,안효진,An, Geon-Hyoung,Lee, Eun-Hwan,Ahn, Hyo-Jin 한국분말야금학회 2016 한국분말야금학회지 Vol.23 No.6

          N-doped carbon nanofibers as catalysts for oxygen-reduction reactions are synthesized using electrospinning and carbonization. Their morphologies, structures, chemical bonding states, and electrochemical performance are characterized. The optimized N-doped carbon nanofibers exhibit graphitization of carbon nanofibers and an increased nitrogen doping as well as a uniform network structure. In particular, the optimized N-doped carbon nanofibers show outstanding catalytic activity for oxygen-reduction reactions, such as a half-wave potential ($E_{1/2}$) of 0.43 V, kinetic limiting current density of $6.2mAcm^{-2}$, electron reduction pathways (n = 3.1), and excellent long-term stability after 2000 cycles, resulting in a lower $E_{1/2}$ potential degradation of 13 mV. The improvement in the electrochemical performance results from the synergistic effect of the graphitization of carbon nanofibers and the increased amount of nitrogen doping.

        • KCI등재

          비변호사 중재인 활용의 문제점과 개선방안

          안건형 한국중재학회 2015 중재연구 Vol.25 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          변호사법 제109조는 비변호사가 유상으로 감정·대리·중재·화해·청탁·법률상담 또는 법률 관련 문서의 작성, 그 밖의 법률사무를 취급하거나 이러한 행위의 알선을 금지하는 형사처벌 규정을 두고 있다. 그렇다면 우리나라에서 변호사 자격이 없는 비변호사는 중재인으로서의 자격이 없는 것인지 문제될 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 변호사법 제109조 및 중재인의 자격에 관한 판례 및 선행연구를 살펴보고, 우리나라의 관련 법률과 해외 주요 33개국의 중재법 등 관련 법률 내에 규정되어 있는지 비교·검토하였다. 나아가 대한상사중재원에 2012년 접수된 360개의 중재사건에 대한 통계 분석을 통하여 실제 비변호사 중재인 선정 현황이 어떤지 파악해 보았다. 마지막으로, 이러한 조사를 통해 우리나라에서 비변호사 전문가가 중재인으로 활동하는데 있어 문제될 수 있는 변호사법과 중재법의 개정 방안에 대해 제언하고 있다.

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