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The waste biomass of Saccharomyces uvarum, used in fermentation industries to produce ethanol, were studied for their ability to absorb various heavy metal ions. Heavy metal ions studied in this research were Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb. The order of the sorption capacity was Pb>Cu>Co=Cr=Cd>Ni. The living Saccharomyces uvarum exhibited higher metal-uptake capacity than the dead Saccharomyces uvarum. After we compare the uptake capacity of the Saccharomyces uvarum for individual metal ions with for a mixture of them, the following was observed: in the mixed heavy metal solution the uptake capacity was decreased than the one heavy metal solution. The selective uptake was observed when all the heavy metal ions were dissolved in a mixed solution. The adsorption isotherm modelling was decribed with the Langmuir and Freundlich model. The results were in good agreement with the Langmuir model.
A number of experiments were conducted in order to investigate the organic removal efficiency and biomass characteristics according to the organic shock loading rate in a fluidized bed biofilm reactor. At the operation conditions of HRT, 8.44 hour, superficial upflow velocity, 0.9 ㎝/sec and temperature, 22±1 ℃, the removal efficiency of SCOD was founded to be 96.5, 92 and 90 % with the organic shock loading rate of 3.5, 10.8 and 33 kgCOD/㎥·day, respectively. Within the F/M ratio ranged 0.4 to 2.0 ㎏COD/㎏VSS·day, the SCOD removal efficiency was shown as 90% at F/M ratio of 2.0 ㎏COD/㎏VSS·day, but the TCOD removal efficiency was 72 % at F/M ratio of 1.8 kgCOD/kgVSS·day. The average biomass concentrations were 7800, 14950 and 27532 ㎎/l on the organic shock loading rate of 3.5, 10.8 and 33 ㎏COD/㎥·day, respectively. This result was agreed with the fact that more biomass could be produced at high concentration of substrate, but some biomass was detached at the onset of shock and easily acclimated at the shock condition.
Marine algaes are capable of binding a large quantity of heavy metals. We have investigated the uptake capacity of Pb and Cu by using 22 species of marine algae, collected from Korean coast. Among a variety of different marine algae types for biosorbent potential, Kjellmaniella crassifolia showed the highest uptake capacity of Pb. Metal uptake of Pb and Cu by Kjellmaniella crassifolia increase as the initial concentration rises, as long as binding sites are remained. The metal uptake parameters for Pb and Cu had been determined according to Langmuir and Freundlich model. By increasing pH. Pb uptake was increased and Cu uptake was constant. The maximum uptake capacity of Pb and Cu by Kjellmaniella crassifolia was 437 ㎎/g and 129 ㎎/g, respectively.