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One of the basic and common concerns of a human being is to secure a living place that gives him the feeling of warmth and security. This is as universal in the West as it is in the East. However, the basic philosophy toward the nature which is a main factor to achieve this goal is different each other and each attitude has expressed in the basic concepts of landscape design or city planning. These differences between the Oriental and Occidental attitude might be said that those have occurred from the influences of its natural philosophy, that is, how to see the relationships between man and nature. Human-centered view of the West has been influenced mainly by the Christian dogma of creation, which is found in the clause of Genesis and it has another messing of today's ecological crisis. Under these trends, there is emerging a new paradigm, an ecological landscape which rethink our old one, and its basic attitude toward nature is the same context with the Oriental view of nature. Especially, Feng Shui, which basic concept has emphasized the harmonious balance between humanity and nature to live happily without misfortune, might be called as one of the representative philosophy of nature in the East. The new direction in landscape architecture is toward the interaction and interrelationships of humans and environment. The key issue is the shift from ecology as an important consideration in the landscape architect's practice to ecology as a guiding principle at the deepest conceptual level of understanding. The emphasis is on the interaction of humans sad environment to create mutually complementary outcomes of the ecological and evolutionary fit. The possession of a paradigm in a field is a sign of maturity in the development of a discipline. In the landscape industry, having a sound paradigm is urgent to get an independent territory, and an ecological approach which emphasizes the harmonious balance among all creatures can be a proper paradigm.
This paper reviewed on the symbolism of landscape plants appeared in the past Korean and foreign literatures. The results were as follows ; 1. Landscape plants universally exhibited symbolism. 2. Symbolism of landscape plants in Korea was generally 'virginity', 'a man of virtue', 'prosperity of descendants', etc., with emphasis on culture of character and peace of a family. While symbolism of Landscape plants in the foreign countries was 'longevity', 'the cosmic tree', 'beauty', etc., with emphasis on individual and intercontinental aspects and on beauty. This seemed to be influenced by the difference from different religious and social ways of life. 3. Symbolism of ornamental plants in three countries of the Orient including Korea, Japan and China has relation with the meaning of moral culture. 4. Korean landscape plants which has appeared more than 10 times (28 species) in the past literatures were endowed with symbolism, so Korean ancestors seemed to favor the plants with certain symbolic values other than esthetic and functional aspects. 5. When one saw the influence of religion on the symbolism of plants, 77% of the symbolism had relation with religions in Korea, such as Confucianism (30%), Taoism (19%), Poong-Soo (16%) and Shamanism (12%) in that order, while 67% of symbolism were influenced by the religions such as Juda-Christianism, Taoism, Shamanism in foreign countries. So we find that religions were deeply related with symbolism of plants.
We are living in an epoch of globalization and fast urbanization, and thus living environment has become dreary day by day. On this situation how to create a comfortable and dreamful residential environment has become a hot issue of global concern. Therefore, to make deep research on this matter is of necessity. Among the differences between the Western and Eastern garden culture, different types are well known, but garden components are not widely studied. Stonescape in the Eastern traditional garden was a unique one and these rocks were used not only for the aesthetic but also for the imaginary [the third] environment such as superpower, gods, Immortals and so on which are disappeared in modern landscape architecture.
This study focused on how to adopt Korean unique traditional plays to urban parks thus to develop the Korean-style. The conclusions of the study were as follows; 1. Traditional plays had such characteristics as a high adaptability to space, high dependancy to nature in that they could be played in a daily outdoor space and did not require special play space. 2. They were very much creative plays by using not special instruments to be played with but those instruments easy to get by in daily life, To be appreciated arts handed down to the nest generations, they required somewhat wide playgrounds(minimum area 4㎡) which were mainly circular stage. 3. They had a variety of plays and a lot of changes because of the characteristics of overall Korean culture. Children's plays were enjoyed without special preparation and had a rapid physiological circulation since they did not have a certain form. 4. Multipurposed spaces for play were required to accommodate a variety of plays rather than a certain specific play space. 5. Provisions on traditional plays should be inserted in the existing Urban Park Law. 6. Children's traditional play space should be available in the urban parks and their pavement such as concrete should be minimized and space (or traditional plays should be on earth. 7. Western play equipments should be minimized as possible as can, so that children could express their enthusiasm and spontaneity through a lot of idea arising from their own decisions and their imaginativeness. 8. Through 20 of 464 plays taken in the urban park, we can find the educational effect that children can express themselves freely and develope their physical, emotional, social and intellectual personality. 9. There should be deciduous trees consisting of mainly native plants, thatched shed(wondumak) and traditional emblems so that traditional plays can go well with the surrounding in the urban parks. 10. They should be adopted to be adjusted to the children's development stage in physical education program or extra curriculum as a regular subject to teach them those plays and expand the opportunity to express themselves.
In Korea, the old and large trees, which are older than 100 years, have been protected as the law-protected tree by the Government since 1972. This study discussed the status of the law-protected trees and their symbolic values, and proposed the protection strategies. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. Number of the law-protected trees have reduced drastically from 13,784 trees in 1972 to 9,516 trees in 1984, that is, 31% reduction. The reasons were presumed to "New village Movement" and industrialization. 2. Number of the law-protected tree species were 103 spp. and Zelkova serrata(5,408 trees, 56%) were the representative species and other Celtis sinensis(1,052 trees), Ginkgo biloba(701 trees), Pinus densiflora(573 trees), Sophora japonica(281 trees) and Juniperus chinensis(198 trees) were seemed the most suitable, species to Korean environment. These species should be propagated and planted all around Korea to get the identity of Korean landscape. 3. Symbolic values of the law-protected trees could be summarized as protection of village, good harvest, memorial tree, good fortune, shade tree, historical relationship, bearing-a-son, patriotism, landscaping and Poong-soo purposes. 35% of the law-protected trees had legend and kept the close relation with Korean people. It could be said as an origin of public park because villagers were gathered under the trees to get rest or communicate each other pleasantly. 4. For no more damage to the law-protected tree, I would like to propose the strategies ; first, informing the cultural values of the trees more actively to people, second, change of the control office from Forestry Administration to Ministry of Culture, third, securing maintenance budget, forth, enforcement of protection responsibility.
本 硏究는 忠淸北道 報恩郡과 永同郡에 속한 天然記念物 3株와 保護樹 103株, 老樹巨木 111株, 合計 217株에 대하여 生態, 利用 現況, 鳥類棲息, 保護管理 상태를 調査 分析한 結果로 그 內容을 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 전국의 保護樹는 1972년 13,784株에서 1984년 9,516株로 12년 사이 31%(4,268株)가 減少하였는데, 품격이 낮을수록 높은 減少率을 나타냈다. 2. 調査 지역간의 調査 株數는 報恩郡이 155株, 永同郡이 62주로 報恩郡이 월등히 많은데 永同 地域은 산업화가 조기에 되어 손실이 많은 것으로 추정되고, 報恩 地域이 丘陵 등의 평탄지가 많아 노거수의 생육이 유리한 것으로 調査되었으나 추후 細密한 硏究를 필요로 한다. 3. 調査 地域內의 保護樹는 1972년에서 1984년 12년 사이에 78株가 減少하여 全國 平均보다 12% 높았고, 1992년 調査時에는 4株가 減少하여 減少율이 둔화되었다. 수종별로는 느티나무가 51株 減少되어 가장 많았고 원인별로는 管理 소홀에 의한 樹冠 矮小가 32株로써 가장 높았다. 4. 樹冠 枯死는 50% 이상 枯死된 나무가 9%였으며, 保護를 요하는 나무(樹冠 枯死率 10-50%)가 49%로 나타났다. 5. 保護樹의 枯死 원인을 보면 인위적인 被害가 82%이고 자연적 被害가 18%로 나타났다. 인위적인 被害 중 콘크리트 옹벽이나 도로 개설 등 새마을 운동과 편익 시설에 의한 被害가 53%로 가장 높게 나타났다. 6. 利用 시설은 의자가 가장 많았고, 利用 행태는 夏期 휴식, 놀이터, 만남의 장소, 農幕 등으로 利用되며 과다한 利用 시설로 生長에 지장을 주고 있었으며, 利用 行態는 소규모 部落公園의 역할을 하여 대중성을 띠고 있었다. 7. 保護樹의 위치는 部落 입구나 앞이 가장 많았고 중앙, 뒤, 인근 언덕의 순이었으며, 部落 앞이나 입구, 뒤는 風水地理的 기능이 많았고, 인근 언덕은 堂木으로 많이 利用되고 있었다. 8. 象徵的인 機能은 농사의 풍년을 예시하는 나무가 제일 많았고, 個人의 求福, 風水地理, 堂木, 吉凶의 豫示 등의 순으로 나타났다. 9. 部落祭를 지내는 部落은 32%였으며, 시기는 陰曆 정월 대보름을 전후하여 79%로 제일 많았고, 12월 말과 정월 초에 집중되어 있었다. 10. 部落祭가 없어진 시기는 1940년 이전이 제일 많았고, 그 다음이 새마을 운동이 진행된 1970년대로 나타났다. 11. 保護樹에서의 鳥類 棲息은 까치의 서식 株數가 75株로 나타나 40%의 棲息率을 보였고 참새, 굴뚝새 등의 순이었다. 12. 위치한 토지의 所有는 私有가 92%로 나타나 保護 利用에 문제점으로 나타났으며, 株堂 평균 樹冠 면적은 352㎡ 로 나타났다. 13. 수목내 空洞의 발생율은 느티나무, 왕버들에서 높았으며, 느티나무는 수령 200년 이상되어야 발생이 시작되고 300년 이상은 38%, 500년 이상은 87%로 나타났으며, 은행나무는 500년 이상되어야 空洞이 발생되는 것으로 나타났고 전문가에 의한 治療를 필요로 하였다. 14. 天然記念物은 保護 시설이 비교적 잘되어 있었고 保護樹는 老樹巨木 보다는 많이 保護시설이 있었으나 전체적으로 미흡하며, 保護 형태는 保護壁과 覆土의 처리가 제일 많았고 그 외 保護지주, 保護區域의 設定, 案內板, 地被植物 植栽, 樹幹 治療, brace, 피뢰침 설치 등의 保護 시설이 있었으나 전문가의 주변 환경에 대한 종합적인 평가 후에 保護 시설을 설치하여야 할 것으로 보였다. 15. 保護樹는 유래와 가치에 따라 가치가 높은 나무는 文化財로의 승격이 필요하다고 보며, 造景 樹種의 선택시 우리의 기후풍토에 알맞고 한국적인 造景을 위해서 保護樹 樹種의 積極的인 導入이 필요하다고 사료되었다. This study was carried out to investigate the status, utilization, protection and maintenance, and bird inhabitation of 217 trees such as 3 natural monument trees, 103 law-protected trees and 111 old trees in Young Dong and Po Un County, Chung Cheng Buk Province, Korea. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. Law-protected trees in Korea were decreased 31% for 12 years from 13,784 trees in 1972 to 9,516 trees in 1984, and shown higher decrease in the low class. 2. Number of surveyed law-protected tree in Po Un county were higher than those in Young Dong county(62 trees). Po Un county was seemed more suitable for the growth of old trees because level fronds such as low hills were abundant. 3. Number of law-protected trees in surveyed area were 12% higher than that of national average which were decreased for 78 trees between 1972 and 1984, and decrease rate showed lower because number of trees in 1992 were diminished 4 trees. By species, Zelkow serrata was most decreased for 51 trees, which the reason of decrease were dwarfed in crown by indifferent maintenance for 32 trees. 4. On withering in crown, the trees of withered more than 50% were 9%, and necessary for protection (withering rate in crown 10-50%) were 49%, respectively. 5. On withering in crown for the trees of withered more than 10%, the source was shown 82% by injured from human and 18% by natural injury. On injured from human injuries by New Village Movement such as concrete retaining wall, street widening and leisure facilities were shown high by 53%. 6. Stools were full in using facilities and kinds of using were resting for summer, play equipment for children, meeting place, and farm hut, but too much excessed using facilities caused difficulties on the growth of trees. 7. Location of law-protected trees were at the of entrance or front, center and rear of village and hills around. Front, entrance and rear of village had Poong Soo influence used for genius loci in hills around. 8. On symbolic function of law-protected trees, foreseeing rich or poor harvest, praying of family's fortune, Poong Soo, genius loci and foreshowing calami, etc. were related. 9. On village festival, the time was 79% in the 15th of first month by the lunar calendar and were concentrated in last month late and first month early. 10. The time for giving up the village festival were before 1940th year and after 1970th year when New Village Movement was started. 11. On bird inhabitation, magpie by 40% sparrow, wern and grey starling were inhabited at the law-protected trees. 12. The land around the law-protected trees had many problems because of privately owned and average area under the crown showed 352㎡ per tree. 13. Status of cavity in trees were high in Salix grandulosa, Zelkowa serrata and were caused at more than 200 years old trees, 38% more than 300 years and 87% more than 500 years. In Gingko biloba, cavity was appeared at the trees more than 500 years. but Pinus desiflora had not cavity. 14. On protecting facilities, it was good at natural monument and they were much equipped in law-protected trees rather than old trees, but were insufficient. In the view of protecting methods, it protected prop, establishment of protected zone, guide board, ground cover planting, remedy of trunk brace and supporting rod were necessary to protect the trees.
This paper suggested the applicability of horticultural therapy and its need in our society by examining the concept of horticultural therapy, historical backgrounds and social significance. Although hortricultural therapy has quite a long historical background as a technique, it has only a short historical background as a science. In Europe and America, since the 1930s, it has been utilized in hospitals and medical treatment centers to rehabilitate mainly for the mentally and physically handicapped and the elderly people. The effectiveness of it also has been well recognized. At present, its utilization is limited in the places only for special populations. In the near future, however, it will be necessary to consider applying it into other various places (e.g., houses, schools and parks, etc.) for general populations. Especially, in order to meet the social needs in Korea, we need to examine its applicability to our society and to conduct more related studies along with establishing institutional devices.
Landcover has been largely influenced by human activities, especially in recent days. The analysis of the change of land use by urbanized development is useful for determining development plan hereafter. This study aimed to the quantitative analysis about the urban sprawl within 12 years from 1985 to 1996, at Chonan, and for extracting the characteristics of change. For this purpose, this study performed land cover classifications using Landsat TM data . A hybrid classification method was used to classify satellite images into seven types of land cover. Road network digitied from 1:25,000 topographic map was rasterized and overlaid on the landcover map. A result of this study showed that area of forest and paddy decreased due to urban sprawl. Especially from 1993 to 1996, the change of land use progressed rapidly because of merging a city and a country in Chonan. The size of patch in forest had been smaller and irregular form. It is a general progress that size of patch in forest had been smaller and irregular form. It is a general progress that the forest have changed the paddy and bare land paddy and bare land have changed low-density urban or high-density urban. This explained how urbanized Chonan was and applied the suggeston of plan in landuse with the result of this study.