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Objective : To investigate the prognostic factors associated with outcome in patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. Method : During the past 4 years, we have operated on 35 patients with cervical OPLL. Anterior cervical decompression(total or subtotal corpectomy, discectomy, and removal of the OPLL) and interbody fusion with iliac bone were performed in all patients. Results : Eight cases(22.9%) were continuous type, 11(31.4%) segmental, 13(37.1%) Mixed, and 3(8.6%) localized type. Thirty-two patients(91.4%) showed an excellent or good results. Conclusion : These results indicate that surgical treatment should be considerated in case of clinical grading higher than II and the surgical outcome is worse when duration of preoperative symptom is longer and when percentage of spinal narrowing is higher. Anterior cervical decompression and interbody fusion seems to be a better method in patients with lesions limited to one or two level. Age at surgery did not significantly affect the outcom.
CCU (CO2 capture and utilization) is a process that uses waste CO2 as a chemical feedstock for the synthesis of commercially viable products such as bio-oils, chemicals, fertilizers and fuels. The process can contribute to reducing CO2 emissions by at least 3.7 Gt/year (approximately 10 % of total current annual CO2 emissions) and is divided into three groups: mineral carbonation, biological conversion and chemical conversion. Among three groups in CCU process, microalgal culture system is the most widely used for biological CO2 conversion than a land plant. This is due to microalgae have higher photosynthetic efficiency (CO2 fixation rate), and greater abilities to capture light and convert CO2 to high-value products (astaxanthin, β-carotene, and functional protein) than land plants. Strain improvement (upstream process) and process development (midstream and downstream processes) are core factors for economically feasible CO2 reduction using microalgal culture system.
In order to study the architectural trend and problems of the development-type rural house of light frame wooden structure, this research considered rural houses and the characters of wooden houses, analyzed the architectural trend of rural houses of light frame wooden structure, surveyed and analyzed examples of the development-type rural houses of light frame wooden structure. The process of developing houses of wooden structure is divided into selection of the site, design and execution of work and its details include selection of the architectural designer, architectural design, contractor and execution of work. In this process rural houses are divided into the following two architectural types.