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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the polymerization ability of three different light sources by microhardness test. Stainless steel molds of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm in thickness of 7 mm in diameter were prepared. The hybrid composite Z100 was packed into the hole of the mold and curing light was activated for designated time. Three different light sources, conventional halogen, light emitting diode, and plasma arc, were used for curing of composite. Two different curing times applied; one is to follow the manufacturers recommendation and the other is to extend the curing time of LED and plasma arc for balancing the light energy with halogen. Immediately after curing, the Vickers hardness was measured at the bottom of specimen. The results were as follows. 1. The composite cured with LED showed equal to higher microhardness than halogen. 2. The composite was cured with plasma arc by manufacturers recommendation showed lowest microhardness at all thickness. However, when curing time was extended, microhardness was higher than the others. In conclusion, this study suggested that plasma arc needs properly extended curing time.
This study is a precedent study for deriving transfer function model between growing stock and forest management policies. Its goal is to solve the multicollinearity between forest works inducing growing stock changes through principal component analysis using annual time series data from 1997 to 2008. As the results, the total explanatory power showed 91.4% on the summarized 3 principal components. They were renamed 'good forest management'․'pest & insets management'․'forest fires' for conceptualization on the derived each component. 이 연구는 입목축적과 산림관리정책 간의 전이함수(transfer function model)를 도출하기 위한 선행연구로, 입목축적변화를 유도하는 산림사업 간 다중공선성의 문제를 해결하기 위해 주성분 분석을 실시하였다. 분석자료는 9개의 대표적인 산림관리정책에 대해 1977~2008년까지 32년간의 연도별 시계열데이터를 활용하였으며, 분석 결과 추출된 3개의 주성분에 대한 전체 설명력은 91.4%로 상당히 높게 나타났다. 요약된 3개의 성분은 양호한 산림관리․병해충관리․산불발생이라는 새로운 변수명으로 개념화하였다.
Since the concept of children’s museum was coined, interest in children’s museum has been growing in Korea. Currently, however, facilities are not sufficient enough to meet demands, both quantitatively and qualitatively. It is highly urgent to build appropriate children’s museum effectively functioning as an educational institution for our younger generation. At this point, the study discusses issues with children’s museum of which exhibition method is dramatically evolving from eyes-on system to hands-on one. The study examines the importance and role of hands-on exhibition method suitably meeting the needs of children and suggests directions for the future.
Objective: The early growth response (Egr) family consists of four members (Egr1, Egr2, Egr3, and Egr4) that are zinc finger transcription factors. Among them, Egr3 is involved in transcriptional regulation of target genes during muscle spindle formation and neurite outgrowth. We previously showed that the immunoreactive Egr3 is localized on oocyte spindle and accumulate near the microtubule organizing center during meiosis I in mice. Egr3 was also shown to be localized on spermatocytes. We herein investigated if Egr3 is expressed in mouse gonads and if Egr3 blockade results in any defect in oocyte maturation. Methods: Expression of Egr3 in mouse gonads was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Full-length Egr3 and truncated Egr3 (ΔEgr3) complementary RNAs (cRNAs) with Xpress tag at N-terminus and DsRed2 at C-terminus, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Egr3 were microinjected into mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage. Localization of microinjected Egr3 was examined by confocal live imaging and immunofluorescence staining. Results: Egr3 mRNA was detected in mouse ovaries and testes from 1 to 4 week-old mice. An uncharacterized longer transcript containing 5’untranslated region was also detected in 3 and 4 week-old gonads. Microinjected Xpress-Egr3-DsRed2 or Xpress-ΔEgr3-DsRed2 localized to nuclei and chromosomes during meiotic progression. Microinjection of these cRNAs or Egr3 siRNA in oocytes did not affect meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescence staining of Egr3 in Xpress-ΔEgr3-DsRed2-injected oocytes showed a positive signal only on meiotic spindle, suggesting that this antibody does not detect endogenous or exogenous Egr3 in mouse oocytes. Conclusion: The results show that Egr3 localizes to chromosomes during meiotic progression and that certain antibodies may not faithfully represent localization of target proteins in oocytes. Egr3 seems to be dispensable during oocyte maturation in mice.
Objective: Under estrogen deficiency, blastocysts cannot initiate implantation and enter dormancy. Dormant blastocysts live longer in uterothan normal blastocysts, and autophagy has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the sustained survival of dormant blastocysts duringdelayed implantation. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway and a central component of the integrated stress response. Reactive oxygenspecies (ROS) are produced within cells during normal metabolism, but their levels increase dramatically under stressful conditions. We investigatedwhether heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts is associated with the increased oxidative stress under the unfavorable conditionof delayed implantation. Methods: To visualize ROS production, day 8 (short-term dormancy) and day 20 (long-term dormancy) dormant blastocysts were loaded with1-μM 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2’, 7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). To block autophagic activation, 3-methyladenine(3-MA) and wortmannin were used in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results: We observed that ROS production was not significantly affected by the status of dormancy; in other words, both dormant and activatedblastocysts showed high levels of ROS. However, ROS production was higher in the dormant blastocysts of the long-term dormancy group thanin those of the short-term group. The addition of wortmannin to dormant blastocysts in vitro and 3-MA injection in vivo significantly increasedROS production in the short-term dormant blastocysts. In the long-term dormant blastocysts, ROS levels were not significantly affected by thetreatment of the autophagy inhibitor. Conclusion: During delayed implantation, heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts may be operative as a potential mechanism to reduceoxidative stress. Further, ROS may be one of the potential causes of compromised developmental competence of long-term dormant blastocystsafter implantation.
Tourism destinations should gain competitive advantages by providing distinctive attractions that can attract tourists and create profits. Tourists prefer differentiated destinations, but most destinations fail to offer unique characteristics by providing similar tourism environments and activities to tourists. In this regard, it is important to improve the quality level of tourism experience by creating a characteristic tourist environment and atmosphere so that it can be differentiated from other destinations. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of destination identity perceived by tourists on attitudes and the relationship between tourists' attitudes influenced by destination identity and their satisfaction and behavioral intention. It is useful to not only understand more deeply the importance of differentiating tourist destinations but also establish effective marketing strategies to become a tourist destination that can continue to grow and differentiate. The summary of the analysis result is as follows. The results showed that destination identity has four factors which include an activity type, a nature type, an emotion type and a relationship type. In addition, these four factors of destination identity had a significant influence on the attitude of tourist. Of these, it was found that an emotion type played a great role in creating the attitude of tourists. Tourist attitude had a positive effect on the satisfaction of tourists. Tourist satisfaction had a significant impact on the behavioral intention of tourists.
종교 개혁은 지금 한국 기독교에서도 요구되고 있는 필수 과제이다. 이 글은 한국 기독교의 정체성에 대한 문제를 염두에 두고, 기독교 복음과 종교 개혁의 의미가 무엇인가 하는 질문을 제기한다. 역사 안에서 루터의 종교 개혁은 왜 일어났는가, 초대 교회로 돌아가자는 외침은 무엇을 의미했는가를 먼저 묻고, 그 대답으로서 인간 존엄성과 개인의 자유 확보와 직결되는 종교의 역할과 그 자리를 살펴본다. 이를 통해, 기독교 신학의 구원 개념을 ‘신’(神)과 ‘선’(善)의 연결에서 찾아 종교의 개혁적 사고가 인간 개인에게 준 영향을 검토해 보고자 한다. 이 과정에서 종교 개혁의 정신과 근대 사상의 주체성을 새롭게 정리했던 루터와 칸트의 작업을 탐구한다. 이때 그들의 개혁 사상이 어떻게 시대의 문제를 인식하고, 전통적 종교 권위를 무효화시키며, 인간 개개인의 주체성을 정립하고 보 편화했는가 하는 문제를 볼 것이다. 루터와 칸트가 자유 개념들을 통해 신에 대한 인식과 존재의 문제를 어떻게 해결하려고 했는가를 묻고 그 답을 찾아본다. 아울러, 자유 의지 개념이 어떻게 인간의 존엄성을 지키며 신학적 근거를 갖게 되었는가, 어떻게 사회 개혁과 개인의 정체성에 영향을 주는 새로운 의식으로 자리 잡게 되었는가 하는 과정을 확인할 것이다. Martin Luther and Immanuel Kant are both reformers who opened a new age. They recognized the the contemporary problem of individual subject and established the ground for the connection of ‘freewill’ and ‘human dignity.’ They demythologized the authority of traditional religion to keep the pace with social change. I examined how Luther and Kant supported human dignity with personal practical reason, accepted the basis of theological notion, and connected ‘the good’ and ‘God’ for the sake of self-legislation using the concept of the good. I argue that their existential and practical freewill makes room for humanity and religion in ethical and practical realms.