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      • 시민사회와 민주시민교육

        신형식 ( Hyung Sik Shin ) 한국민주시민교육학회 2012 한국민주시민교육학회보 Vol.13 No.2

        이 논문은 한국의 민주화운동의 흐름 속에서 나타나 성장해왔던 민주시민 교육을 시민사회의 변화 속에서 검토한다. 시민사회, 특히 시민사회의 민주화운동이 한국사회 민주화의 실질적 동력이었으며, 그 결과 1987년 6월 민주항쟁으로 인해 절차적 민주화를 이루었으나 민주화 이후 시민사회의 변화와 함께 일정 정도 한계에 봉착하고 있다는 사실을 확인할 수 있다. 시민사회 발전의 한계를 극복하기 위해서는 민주시민교육을 통해 시민 의식과 역량을 향상시킬 필요가 있는 것이다. 그리하여 민주시민교육의 필요성과 민주시민교육 제도화의 의의를 도출하고자 한다. 제2장에서는 민주주의 이행과 시민사회의 개념 등을 다루는 기존 연구들을 검토하고, 3장에서는 민주화 이후 시민사회의 변화와 함께 일정 정도 한계에 봉착하고 있는 시민사회 발전의 한계를 극복하기 위한 방편으로서 민주시민교육을 분석한다. 제4장에서는 시민적 정치문화의 구축과 민주주의의 공고화에 크게 기여할 민주시민교육의 필요성을 고찰하며, 결론에서는 민주 시민교육의 제도화를 설명한다. This study contemplates contemporary democratic civic education in the context of Korean democratization after Liberation and civil society movements in its extension. That is to say, civil society, especially movements for democracy in civil society was the critical force of democratization in Korea. Consequently, procedural democratization has achieved. However, it has been faced certain limitations by the change of civil society of post-democratization. To overcome the limitations of the development of civil society, citizenship and democratic competency must be improved by democratic civic education. Accordingly I would like to present the necessity of democratic civic education and significance of its institutionalization, In chapter 2, to analyze the nature of the civil society in Korea and democratic civic education, I would like to review the existing studies dealing with the concept of the transition of democracy, the concept of the civil society and the concept of democratic civic education. In chapter 3, I am going to review the necessity of democratic civic education as an expedient to overcome certain limitations by the change of civil society of post-democratization. In chapter 4, I would like to consider the necessity of democratic civic education to contribute to the consolidation of democracy and building of civil and political culture. In the conclusion, the institutionalization of democratic civic education will be described.

      • KCI등재후보

        미국 시민교육의 헌법적 가치

        申亨植(Shin Hyung Sik) 미국헌법학회 2011 美國憲法硏究 Vol.22 No.3

        민주주의를 심화 발전하는 데 있어 시민교육은 필수불가결하다. 국민들이 그 나라가 추구하고 있는 민주주의의 이념, 민주 정치체제를 명확히 이해하고, 정치과정에서나 사회관계에서 민주적으로 행동할 수 있는 역량을 지니고 있지 않으면 안 되기 때문이다. 이러한 필요성은 미국도 예외가 아니다. 건국 이래 미국에서는 교육이 시민교육의 임무를 띠고 있다고 여겨 왔다. 다시 말해서 미국 입헌민주주의의 가치와 원리에 헌신하면서 교양 있고, 합리적이며, 참여하는 시민이 될 준비를 시킬 임무를 띠고 있다고 여겨 왔다. 미국의 지도자들은 건국 초기부터 민주주의 이념과 정치체제를 국민에게 이해시키고 정치과정과 사회관계에서 그들이 민주적으로 행동할 수 있는 능력과 태도를 함양시키기 위한 시민교육이 필요하다고 인식하였다. 그들은 보수와 진보라는 정치적 이념의 차이에도 불구하고 국가의 발전은 교육받은 시민의 존재가 전제되어야 한다고 믿었고, 교육이야말로 새로운 민주 국가 체제에 요구되는 정치적 덕목과 지식을 가진 시민을 양성하는 최선의 방안이라고 생각하였다. 이 글은 미국 헌법의 기본원칙과 가치에 대한 이해 증진을 위해 미국이 어떤 내용과 방법으로 시민교육을 실시하고 있는지 고찰한다. 이를 위해 우선 미국 시민교육의 전개과정과 시민교육 이론을 살펴본다. 다음으로 미국 시민교육센터에 대하여 설명하고 미국 시민교육의 내용골격과 글로벌 트렌드 및 미국 시민교육의 특징을 분석하면서, 미국 시민교육과 헌법적 기본원칙과 가치에 대해 검토한다. 마지막으로 미국 시민교육의 성과와 과제를 통하여 시민교육의 체계적인 접근방향에 대해 논의한다. Civic education is indispensable for the further development of democracy because it allows the people to understand the ideals of their country's democracy and democratic political system; and it gives them the capability to practice democratically in political processes and social relations. The United States has no exception. Since its founding, the the U.S. education is considered to be responsible for the mission of civic education. In other words, civic education is responsible to prepare cultured, rational and active civilians who are devoted to the values and principles of the constitutional democracy of the United States. Since the early years of the nation's founding, the leaders of the United States realized the needs for civic education to enlighten the ideology of democracy and political system to the people; and to cultivate the ability and attitude to be able to act democratically in political processes and social relations. Despite the difference of the political ideology, the conservative and the liberal, they believed the development of state assumes the presence of educated citizens, and thought civic education is the best idea of cultivating citizens who have political virtues and knowledges which is required in the new democratic state system. This paper discusses how the United States is implementing civic education to enhance the understanding of the basic principles and values of the Federal Constitution. Firstly, the development and the theory of the U.S. civic education are examined. Secondly, the Center for Civic Education is explained; the U.S. civic education and the basic principles and values of the Federal Constitution are considered by analyzing the framework of U.S. civic education, its global trend and characteristics. Lastly, the systematic direction of approach will be discussed through the performances and the tasks of the U.S. civic education.

      • KCI등재
      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        5-FU 하이드로겔을 이용한 생체외 피부투과거동

        안식일 ( Sik Il Ahn ),박상욱 ( Sang Wook Park ),박종학 ( Jong Hak Park ),이준희 ( Jun Hee Lee ),김윤태 ( Yun Tae Kim ),김대성 ( Dae Sung Kim ),김원 ( Won Kim ),이한구 ( Han Koo Lee ),신형식 ( Hyung Shik Shin ),이종문 ( John M Rhe 한국조직공학·재생의학회 2008 조직공학과 재생의학 Vol.5 No.4

        5-Fluorouracil(5-FU) has been widely used to treat cancer as types of iv and oral adminstration. However, it induces many side effects and has short half-life time of 10-20 minutes. Furthermore, it has low bioavailability of 20 % due to the hepatic first pass effect. Therefore, we developed novel TDDS using hydrogel and microneedle system. 5, 8 and 10% w/v of Carbopol 940NF was added in hydrogel containing 5-FU to improve permeability. Viscosity of hydrogel increased with increase of Carbopol contents. We applied these novel DDS to hairless mice skin treated and untreated with microneedle system and evaluated drug permeability into skin. The hydrogel containing 8% w/v Carbopol showed best permeability among three groups. We concluded viscosity of drug acts important factor in permeability into skin and bioavailability could be improved through our novel TDDS.

      • 폐종괴에 대한 경피적 세침흡인세포검사와 자동총부착 침생검의 비교

        남은숙,김덕환,신형식,Nam, Eun-Sook,Kim, Duck-Hwan,Shin, Hyung-Sik 대한세포병리학회 1998 대한세포병리학회지 Vol.9 No.1

        To compare the diagnostic yields and complication rates of transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) and gun biopsy in the diagnosis of pulmonary mass, a retrospective review was performed in 125 cases. Under the fluoroscopic guide, FNAC was performed by 20G Chiba needle in 91 cases, core biopsy was done by 18.5 G vaccum needle attached with automated biopsy gun in 74 cases and both procedures were done together in 37 cases. Overall sensitivity was 88.4% in FNAC and 87.5% in gun biopsy. For malignant pulmonary tumors, correct type correlation with final diagnosis was obtained in 33(76.7%) out of 43 cases by FNAC and 30(75.0%) out of 40 cases by gun biopsy. For benign pulmonary lesions, there were correct type correlation in 14(35.0%) out of 40 cases by FNAC and 14(53.8%) out of 26 cases by gun biopsy. The complication was pneumothorax and hemoptysis. Pneumothorax occured in 11.1% of FNAC, 10.9% of gun biopsy and 10.9% of both technique, among which chest tube drainages were necessary in one patient by gun biopsy and in three patients by both technique. Although no significant difference of diagnositc accuracy and complication rate was found between FNAC and gun biopsy, gun biopsy was more helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary benign lesions than FNAC.

      • 타액선 상피-근상피세포암종의 세포학적 소견 - 1예 보고 -

        남은숙,강구,신형식,Nam, Eun-Sook,Kang, Gu,Shin, Hyung-Sik 대한세포병리학회 1996 대한세포병리학회지 Vol.7 No.1

        The report of aspiration cytologic findings of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma(EMC) in the salivary gland is extremely rare. We present a case of fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) from EMC in the right submandibular gland of a 46 years old male patient. Neck CT scan revealed a confined lesion in the submandibular gland without enlargement of the regional lymph node. FNAC from the tumor showed several three-dimensional cellular clusters with admixed normal acinar cells. They frequently formed blanching tubular structures composed of two type of cells; darker cells haying eosinophilic scanty cytoplasm with round dense nuclei and clear cells having abudant pale cytoplasm with vesicular nuclei at the periphery of clusters. The tumor cells of both types did not show pleomorphism or mitoses. The resected submandibular gland showed an ill-defined whitish firm tumor, measuring $2{\times}1.5{\times}2cm$. The histology revealed an infiltrative tumor showing characteristic two cell types in a duct-like arrangement surrounded by thin basement menbrane. An inner layer of darker cells and outer layer of clear cells were postive for cytokeratin in the former and S-100 protein in the taller on the immunohistochemical stain.

      • 실내 수조에서 수온의 변화에 따른 아무르불가사리(Asterias amurensis)와 별불가사리(Asterina pectinifera)의 행동 패턴

        권인영(Inyeong Kwon),신형식(Hyung-Sik Shin),장주영(Ju-Yeong Jang),홍석규(Suk-Kyu Hong),김태호(Taeho Kim) 전남대학교 어업기술연구소 2014 어업기술연구소보고지 Vol.7 No.1

        A series of experiments which observed the movement patterns of starfishs (Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera.) upon changes of water temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C) were carried out in an indoor water tank. In the experiment, the moving speed and distance of starfishs (Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera) in the water tank was analyzed based through observations of video camera footage and PVS software. A total of 24 starfishs were used, with an initial body wet weight of 79.86±20.12 g (Asterias amurensis), 66.50±38.03 g (Asterina pectinifera) respetively. The movement patterns of starfishs (Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera.) were observed using video camera for 12 h a day. Asterias amurensis showed the highest activity at 15℃ of water temperature. The maximum moving distance and speed of Asterias amurensis were about 2.64 m and approximately 0.0040 ㎧ at 15℃, respectively. The minimum observed moving distance and speed of Asterias amurensis were about 0.40 m at 25℃ and approximately 0.0012 ㎧ at 25℃, respectively. On the other hand, Asterina pectinifera showed the highest activity at 25℃ of water temperature. The maximum moving distance and speed of Asterina pectinifera were about 3.18 m and approximately 0.0049 ㎧ at 25°C, respectively. The minimum observed moving distance and speed of Asterina pectinifera were about 0.55 m at 15℃ and approximately 0.0018 ㎧ at 10℃, respectively. It was observed that the optimum water temperature for starfishs (Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera) movement was about Asterias amurensis in 15°C and Asterina pectinifera in 25℃, respectively.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        섬자리공 유래 항바이러스 단백질과 항체 복합체를 이용한 HIV-1 감염세포의 선택적 제거

        강미란,김윤구,홍효정,조명환,신형식,김선영,Kang, Mi-Ran,Kim, Yoon-Kyu,Hong, Hyo-Jeong,Cho, Myung-Hwan,Shin, Hyung-Sik,Kim, Sun-Young 대한미생물학회 1998 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.28 No.4

        A murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV -1) was chemically coupled to pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana. The immunotoxin was purified by FPLC using S200 colum. The purified immunotoxin efficiently bound to HIV-infected T cells as evidenced by fluorescenceactivated cell sorter analysis. The immunotoxin selectively killed human T lymphoid lines infected with $HIV-1_{IIIB}$ at less than 250 pM of the immunotoxin cells, while PAP or mAb alone did not have any significant effect on infected cells. The uninfected control T cell lines were not affected. Human cells infected with HIV-2 or other HIV-1 strains were not killed, suggesting that the killing depends completely on the antibody used for coupling. These in vitro results suggest that the PAP-mAb conjugate may be used to selectively remove cells expressing viral antigens from individuals infected with HIV.

      • 아밀로이드 갑상선종대의 세침흡인 세포학적 소견 - 1예 보고 -

        채승완,남은숙,김덕환,신형식,손진희,Chae, Seoung-Wan,Nam, Eun-Sook,Kim, Duck-Hwan,Shin, Hyung-Sik,Sohn, Jin-Hee 대한세포병리학회 2000 대한세포병리학회지 Vol.11 No.2

        Amyloid golfer is a rare disease entity that is defined as a symptomatic mass or clinically detectable thyroid enlargement because of amyloid deposition. We present a case of amyloid golfer diagnosed in the fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) in a 73-year-old Korean woman presented with nephrotic syndrome and thyroid enlargement. The thyroid function was in normal range. Thyroid scan showed a nodule, $4{\time}2cm$ in the right lobe with underlying diffuse golfer. Aspirates revealed benign looking follicular cells and scattered eosinophilic material. The sections of the cell block showed nodular deposit of eosinophilic hyalinized material in the interfollicular area. It showed apple-green birefringence under polarization with Congo red stain. The renal biopsy also exhibited deposition of eosinophilic materials in the glomeruli and interstitial vascular wall, which were confirmed as amyloidosis. This material was morphologically distinct from the colloid.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        생약 제제가 세포활성도에 미치는 효과

        두진수,강정구,유형근,신형식,Doo, Jin-Soo,Kang, Jung-Ku,You, Hyung-Keun,Shin, Hyung-Sik 대한치주과학회 1997 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.27 No.3

        Healing of periodontal tissues require the migration and proliferation of gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. There is many evidences that the some agents like cytokines and polypeptide growth factors are mediate these cellular events in wound healing. Recently someone is interested in herbal drugs on periodontal tissue healing processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 herbal drugs, Carthami Flis, Moutan Redias Cortex, Scirpi Rhisoma, Seed of Carthamus tinctorius L. on human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. Periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts were primarily cultured from extracted premolar with non-periodontal diseases. The powder from extracted. herbal drugs were prepared with distilled water. Cells were cultured with DMEM at $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$, 100% humidity incubator, and treated with each herbal drugs with proper concentration for 1, 2, and 3 days. The cell activity was determined by ELISA reader using MTT assay. There was the most significant elevation in $10^{-3}g/ml$ of almost herbal drugs on cellular activities. The result of this study demonstrated that Carthami Flis, Moutan Radicis Cortex, Scirpi Rhisoma, Seed of Carthamus tinctorius L. appears to have beneficial effect on healing process after periodontal treatment.

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