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The development of ICT has led positive aspects such as popularization of Internet. It, on the other hand, is causing a negative aspect, Cyber Terror. Although the causes for recent and continuous increase of cyber security incidents are various such as lack of technical and institutional security measure, the main cause which threatens the cyber security is the users' lack of awareness and attitude. The purpose of this study is the positive analysis of how the personal and job characteristics influence the cyber security training participation rate and the response ability to cyber terror response training with a sample case of K-corporation employees. In this paper, the relationship among career, gender, department, whether he/she is a cyber security specialist, whether he/she is a regular employee), “ratio of cyber security training courses during recent three years”, “ratio that he/she has opened the malicious email in cyber terror response training during recent three years”, “response index of virus active-x installation (higher index means poorer response)” is closely examined. Moreover, based on the examination result, the practical and political implications regarding K-corporation's cyber security courses and cyber terror response training are studied.
The study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of unconsolidated-sediments in Gwangyang bay. The characteristics of unconsolidated-sediments show sedimentary environment and facies change of sedimentation, which are the strong indicators of them. The formation of Quarternary sediments of Gwangyang bay can he divided upper sand(S1). middle clay(C2) and lower alluvial layer depending on the geologic facies which, are informed from drilling investigation. Integrated analysis of engineering properties(physical and mechanical) of Quarternary sediments are correlated by IBM-PC(16b.) define its characteristics and relationship, which results are integrated as following descriptions. First, the middle clay layer(C2) is termed as normally consolidated clay. The representative value of uniaxial compressive strength(qt) is 0.81㎏/㎠. Second, the activity(Ac) of middle clay laver(C2) representated by Ac 0.75, therefor it is non-activity state. Third, if the load(pressure) of 15t/㎡ distributed on the study area the settlement can be occurs having lapse time of 20 to 240 years and amounts of 144 to 244㎝, which are differ from drainage pattern and thickness of consolidation layer. Forth, the middle clay layer(C2) has strength of anisotropy and in the unstable domain that it can be easily collapse by external strength. Fifth, the geotechnical properties are closely related to eustatic change of sea level, indicating 2 times change of it, and depositinal environment changes from fluvial environment in east part to marine environment in west part.
Objective: We analyzed the association between regional weather and temporal changes on the daily occurrence of trauma emergencies and their severity. Methods: In this cross-sectional prospective study, we investigated daily atmospheric patterns in trauma episodes in 1,344 patients in Cheongju city, South Korea, from January 2016 to December 2016 and analyzed the association of trauma occurrence and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) with weather conditions on a daily scale. Results: The mean age of trauma patients was 53.0±23.8 years and average ISS was 9.0±2.0. Incidence of trauma was positively correlated with average temperature (r=0.512, P<0.001) and atmospheric pressure (r=0.332, P=0.010) and negatively correlated with air pollutants (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm3 [PM2.5], r=-0.629, P<0.001; particulate matter less than 10 μm3 [PM10], r=-0.679, P<0.001). ISS was not significantly correlated with climate parameters and air pollutants, and variability was observed in the frequency and severity of trauma by time of day (highest occurrence, 16-20 pm; highest ISS, 4-8 am), day of the week (highest occurrence and highest ISS, Saturday), month of the year (highest occurrence, July; highest ISS, November), and season (highest incidence, summer; highest ISS, autumn). Conclusion: The study shows a positive relationship between trauma occurrence and specific weather conditions, such as atmospheric temperature and pressure. There was a negative relationship between concentrations of PM2.5 or PM10, and trauma occurrence. However, no correlation was observed between weather conditions or the concentrations of air pollutants and ISS. In addition, seasonal, circaseptan, and circadian variations exist in trauma occurrence and severity. Thus, we suggest that evaluation of a larger, population-based data set is needed to further investigate and confirm these relationships.
한반도는 판의 경계에서는 벗어난 환경으로, 판의 경계에 위치하는 지역들 보다는 상대적으로 낮은 지체구조적 활동도를 보이며, 삭박율도 상대적으로 높은 편이기 때문에 직접적인 지표파열을 수반한 지진이 없다면 활성단층 추적연구에 어려움이 많다. 따라서 이러한 지역에서의 고지진학적 연구는 과거 발생한 지표변형의 기록을 바탕으로 다양한 접근법을 사용하여 분석할 수밖에 없다. 현대식 지진계가 설치된 이후 지금까지 지표파열을 수반한 대규모 지진이 한반도에 발생하였다는 기록은 없지만, 고지진학적/역사지진학적 자료에는 한반도에서 큰 규모의 지진발생 증거가 다수 보고되었다. 본 연구는 제4기 단층이 밀집되어 있는 울산단층 동편산지에 대한 지형조사를 통해 활성단층의 분포와 활동특성을 해석하고자 시도하였다. 연구지역의 기반암은 흑운모 화강암으로 구성되며, 남-북 방향으로는 충적선상지가 발달하고 있으며, 이들의 선정은 일정한 고도에 위치하고 있음을 보여준다. 이는 선상지를 발달시킨 원인이 단층임을 지시한다. 선상지면은 고도에 따라 3개로 대분되는데, 이러한 양상은 반복적인 조구조 활동의 영향으로 판단된다. 선상지면 내에서는 남북방향의 선형구조를 따라 일반적으로 동측이 융기한 양상이 관찰된다. 선형구조를 가로지르는 전기비저항탐사 결과는 전기비저항 이상대가 지형 이상대와 일치하며, 지표지질조사 결과에 의하면 지형 이상대에서 동쪽으로 경사하는 역단층이 제4기 선상지 퇴적층을 절단하는 것을 확인하였다. 따라서 이 지역의 선상지가 단층작용에 의해 절단되면서 지형 이상대를 형성한 것으로 판단된다. The Korean peninsula with low tectonic activity and high denudation rate is located on the continental margin away from the plate boundary. If there is no earthquake involving surface rupture, it is much difficult to trace active faults in this area. Therefore, paleo-earthquake studies in this kind of tectonic setting have to rely on the synthetic method combining various approaches including topographical characteristics related with past surface deformations. Since the installation of modern seismographs, large earthquakes with surface rupture have not occurred on the Korean Peninsula. However, there are several reported evidences for paleoseismological and historical big earthquakes on the Korean peninsula. This study analyzed the distribution and activity characteristics of active faults, based on the topographic survey in the eastern part of the Ulsan fault zone, where several reported Quaternary faults are concentrated. The research area is a mountainous area on the eastern block of the Ulsan Fault. The basement of this area is composed of biotite granite. The topographic analysis revealed that the apex of alluvial fans along the western side of the ridge developed at a similar altitude. This indicates that the development of the fans is related with faulting. These alluvial fans are classified into three groups based on their elevations, indicating the effect of repetitive tectonic activities. The eastern blocks of the fan surfaces along the N-S trending lineament are commonly uplifted . The anomalies based on the electrical resistivity survey across the lineament are well consistent with the topographical anomalies. Also, the surface field survey supports east-dipping thrust faults, which cut the fan deposits at the same anomaly points. Therefore, the topographical anomaly zones across the fans in this area are considered to be formed as a result of fault activity.
The pollen analysis on the deposits of the lower marine terrace I of the estimated paleoshoreline height of 18m was performed in order to estimate the formation age of this terrace developed at the Sanhadong coast, Ulsan, southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula. The pollen assemblage of the peat layer of SH-1 pollen zone (Quercus-Ulmus/Zelkova zone), lying directly on the marine rounded pebble layer of this terrace, shows that the climatic environment of the deposition period of SH-1 pollen zone was almost similar to that of the Postglacial climatic optimum period, but slightly cooler than that of the late warm stage of Last Interglacial(MIS 5a) in the eastern coast of Korea. This heightens the possibility that the deposition period of the marine rounded pebble layer which was covered by the above SH-1 peat layer is the MIS 5e which has been estimated by a previous study of the sedimentary facies of this terrace deposits (Choi, 2016). The pollen assemblage of SH-2 pollen zone (Pinus-Quercus zone) shows that the climate of this period was almost similar to that of the late Postglacial, but slightly cooler than that of the period of SH-1 pollen zone. This means that the climate around the Sanha-dong was still warmer in the deposition period of the peat layer of SH-2 pollen zone. Thus, the peat layer of SH-2 pollen zone was considered to have been deposited during the period from the early regression stage of the MIS 5d which is the estimated final stage in the deposition period of the above peat layer of SH-1 pollen zone to any stage in which the warmer environment of MIS 5 has still lasted. The humic silt layer of SH-3 pollen zone (Pinus-Ulmus/Zelkova-Abies zone) is assumed to have been deposited during the interstadial of the Last Glacial (MIS 3).