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      • 大統領 政策決定에 있어서의 諮問機構의 役割에 관한 硏究 : The Case of the President's Council of Economic and Scientific Advisers of the Republic of Korea 經濟科學審義會義 事例를 中心으로

        申昌雨 韓陽大學校 行政問題硏究所 1987 行政問題論集 Vol.8 No.-

        Whereas the role of administration in the field of national policy making increases, the allocations of time and energy of chief executives for the policy making are not sufficient due to overconcentration of power and authority, especially in developing countries. On the other hand, it is difficult to expect that the heads of departments of the government formulate and adjust their policies on the basis of the national perspectives beyond their positions and interests. These situations indicate that the chief executives should be aided by the advisory organizations to improve the quality of public policy. Actually the chief executives in many countries have been aided by various advisory organizations, and it seems to be in the increasing trend that the top levels of policy makers make use of the advisory bodies. In Korea, the President's Council of Economic and Scientific Advisers, which was established in 1963 by the Constitution, successfully performed its creative role in the early stage, But, in 1981, it was abolished by the reorganization of the government which attempted to achieve the cut-back management through reduction of government system. This is a contrast phenomenon to the foreign cases. In the same period of time, the council of Economic Advisers of the United States, the Sachverst-andigenrat of West Germany, and the Economic Council of Canada, all of which are advisory bodies for chief executives on economic policies, would rather expand than reduce their role and function. This dessertation attempts to study the factors which determine the effectiveness of policy advice and to investigate the causes of failure of the Korean case through research and comparison with the experiences of other three countries : United States, West Germany and Canada. These studies were carried out through the method of literatures, data analysis, sample survey (tracing quest), questionnaire survey and interviewing. For the study of the President's Council of Economic and Scientific Advisers of the Republic of Korea, the case study is adopted. In this thesis the approach of 'facet design', which was developed by Louis Guttman on the basis of R. A. Fisher's experimental design approach, was applied for analytical framework. Generally speaking, the effectiveness of policy advice and the degree of utilization of policy advisory organization(P) seems to be determined by, ① the quality of advice or recommendation(Q), ② the degree of the confidence of policy maker in the advisory body(C), ③ the taste and judgment of policymaker(J), and ④ the relationship with the environment(E). According to the 'facet design' approach, we can explain these relationships as : P=Q×C×J×E, where Q, C, J, and E are primary facets of P. Each of these primary facets is the element of P, and at the same time, consists of several secondary facets. A sample survey applying a tracing method was conducted by a team for the purpose of this study, and we found that significant portion, above 75 percentage, of the policy recommendations of the President's Council of Economic and Scientific Advisers was adopted by the government as actual policies. The results of survey show that the main reasons of the decrease of the Council's role and the closure of its operation are as follows; (1) Two cultural gap and conflict of cognition between the President and the Council. a) gap of recognition on the role of advisory organization. b) Differences of development ideology and philosophy. (2) Discordance of sense on reality. (3) Unreasonable organization and composition. a) Absence of full time, sole charge chairman. b) Lack of adequate turnover of the Council members. c) Disharmony of authority of the Secretary General of the Council. d) Lack of adequate rotation of the staff. (4) Authoritarian personality of the policy maker. (5) The relationship with the environment. a) Judgment of the policy maker on the rewardability from the environment. b) Lack of interaction between the Council and environment. (6) Overcentralization of power in economic policy to the Vice Premier(Minister of Economic Planning Board), neglectings the principle of redundancy and check and balance. (7) Reorganization of government system in 1981. These findings support the analytical framework of this study. these factors influence the effectiveness of advice and the utilization of the advisory body, and any serious problem connected to these factors can affect a crucial damage on effectiveness and utilization, since each of these factors is a necessary condition even if not sufficient condition for the effectiveness and utilization. Suggestions on the strategy for the enhancement of the effectiveness of policy advice, focusing on economic policy, for the President in Korea based on this study can be summarised as follows; (1) Renewal of recognition on the necessity of policy advisory body for the chief executive. (2) More obvious clarification on the character of advisory body which will be established in future. a) Endowment of significant degree of independency and autonomy. b) Combination and harmony of professionalism and representativeness. c) Strengthenment of linkage and interaction between the advisory body and the public. (3) Endowment of function for social policy advice along with the economic policy advice. (4) Endowment of function of evaluation on economic and social policy together with the meta-evaluation and meta-policy function. (5) endowment of function to aggregate the opinion and wisdom of nation, and to coordinate and conciliate the diverse interests, for the effective policy advice. At the last step of this study, the Constitution of the Republic of Korea was amended through the plebiscite on October 27, 1987, and it prescribed that the National Economic Advisory Council may be established as a policy advisory body for the President, and that another advisory body for the policy of science and technology may be established. This means that the president's Council of Economic and Scientific Advisers will be divided into two bodies, and that the advisory function for the economic policy may be reinforced. The suggestions on the strategy for the enhancement of the effectiveness of policy advice in this study may be applied to the new presidential advisory body for economic policy which will be established according to the new constitution. Retrospecting past experiences, we are now on the stage where we must create atmosphere to esteem the intangible values, and where we must get out of the inertia that appreciate only the visible side in allocation of resources and in budgeting. Considering the great social costs and individual damages deriving from the insufficient quality of public policy, the cost for the small scale policy advisory organization could be regarded as an effective investment.

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        An Objective Method of Driveability Evaluation using a Simulation Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

        신창우,차석원,최종대,임원식 한국정밀공학회 2014 International Journal of Precision Engineering and Vol.15 No.2

        Conventionally, driveability evaluations in vehicles are subjectively assessed by professional test drivers in automotive companies. To solve limitation of repeatability and time-consuming, this paper proposes an objective method of evaluating driveability during acceleration and overtaking conditions in a hybrid electric vehicle. Selected criteria are the acceleration value obtained by the root mean square (RMS), the vibration dose value (VDV), the response delay, and the peak-to-peak value of the acceleration and jerk. For human vibration, measured acceleration signals are applied to frequency weighting functions on the basis of ISO 2631-1. An objective evaluation method for driveability is proposed by achieving a synthesis between the values calculated from each criterion and the correlated weighting factor obtained from the regression analysis of the subjective evaluations. The results by the proposed method with the target HEV are compared to those of the subjective evaluations during acceleration condition and while overtaking. A HEV dynamic model is also designed to utilize the proposed method. The characteristics of two types of strategies for HEVs are designed and analyzed. Finally, a driveability evaluation for each control strategy is performed and the results are compared using the proposed evaluation method.

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        Development of an evaluation method for quantitative driveability in heavy-duty vehicles

        신창우,김형균,김문겸,임원식,차석원 대한기계학회 2014 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.28 No.5

        Subjective evaluations by experienced test drivers are primarily used to assess the driveability of vehicles in automotive companies. However, these evaluations are limited in terms of repeatability, incur costs, and require much time. Therefore, this study introduces amethod of quantitatively evaluating the driveability of heavy-duty vehicles to circumvent these limitations. A vehicle experiment is conductedto measure data from an electronic control unit and an accelerometer to assess the driveability of heavy-duty vehicles. The evaluationindices for driveability are selected from previous studies on the objective and subjective methods of evaluating driveability accordingto various driving conditions. The indices include engine start, idle, acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, and start-up driving conditions. This research presents a quantitative evaluation method using the calculated values of each index and the correlated weighting factorsof indices obtained from the regression analysis of the subjective evaluations. The driveability of heavy-duty vehicles is quantitativelyevaluated under various driving conditions based on the proposed method. Results of the quantitative evaluation are similar to those of thesubjective evaluations, and the proposed method is determined applicable in evaluating the driveability of heavy-duty vehicles.

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        Stochastic Excitation of Coherent Dynamical States of Two Coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons

        신창우,이상귀,김승환 한국물리학회 2006 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.48 No.II

        Coherent dynamics of two synaptically coupled stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons under external subthreshold dc-current stimulus has been studied. The noise-induced excitations of collective states of coupled neurons and phase coherence have been numerically explored for several coupling types as the synaptic conductance and noise intensity are varied. We find that in the cases of weak excitatory and weak inhibitory coupling types, there is an optimal synaptic conductance and optimal noise intensity for maximal phase coherence, while in the case of a strong excitatory coupling type, there is an optimal synaptic conductance.

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