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        • 전자상거래소비자보호법에 대한 고찰 ― 배달앱에 대한 전자상거래소비자보호법의 적용을 중심으로 ―

          신준연 ( Shin Jun Youn ) 연세대학교 법학연구원 글로벌비즈니스와 법센터 2017 연세 글로벌 비즈니스 법학연구 Vol.9 No.2

          네트워크 기술이 발달함에 따라 현대인들의 생활 모습도 다양하게 변하고 있으며, 거래형태 또한 다양해지고 있다. 그 대표적인 예가 ‘배달 어플리케이션(이하 “배달앱”)’이다. 배달앱은 소비자와 사업자 모두에게 긍정적인 효과를 안겨 주었다. 소비자에게는 편리함과 넓은 선택의 폭을 안겨주었으며, 사업자에게는 기존보다 편안한 사업 영위를 가능하게 해주었다. 그러나 아무런 문제가 없는 것은 아니다. 현재 가상공간에서의 거래나 신용카드 등의 수단으로 거래를 하는 것을 “전자상거래 등에서의 소비자보호에 관한 법률(이하 “전자상거래소비자보호법”)”으로 규제하고 있는데, 배달앱서비스는 전자상거래소비자보호법상 전자상거래 및 통신판매에 해당하여 이 법의 적용범위에 포함된다. 하지만 배달앱 분야의 특성상 규정을 그대로 적용할 수 없는 부분이 존재하여 실효성을 확보하기 곤란한 경우가 존재한다. 하지만 배달앱 시장이 소비자들로만 구성된 것이 아니기 때문에 배달앱 운영자와 배달음식 사업자, 소비자들 사이의 균형이 어느 정도 고려되었다는 점에서는 전자상거래소비자보호법을 전반적으로 긍정적으로 평가할 수 있다. 그렇지만 배달앱서비스에 대한 적용을 통해 볼 때 정보공개의무 적용제외, 거래형태에 대한 세분화된 적용 부족, 새로운 거래형태에 대한 유연한 적용 불가라는 한계점 역시 명백히 존재한다는 것을 알 수 있다. 따라서 시장의 모든 구성원들 사이의 균형을 유지하면서 이러한 한계점들을 보완하는 전자상거래소비자보호법을 구축할 필요가 있다. 그것이 국민경제의 건전한 발전을 도모할 수 있는 가장 합리적인 방법이기 때문이다. As network technology develops, the lifestyles of modern people are variably changing and methods of transactions also are diversifying. A glaring example of such technological advancement is the emergence of delivery service programs (hereinafter referred to as “delivery apps”). The widespread of delivery apps provided a positive effect on both consumers and businesses. It provided convenience and extended choices to consumers, as well as allowed more comfortable operation than prior to businesses. However, it is not without problems. Currently, the transactions on cyberspace or by method such as credit cards are regulated with the Consumer Protection Act for Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred as “the E-commerce Consumer Protection Act”). The delivery apps are covered by the E-commerce Consumer Protection Act as they come under the e-commerce and telemarketing clauses of the act. However, there are cases that cause trouble in ensuring the effectiveness of the act, where the code cannot be applied as is due to the characteristics of delivery apps. Nonetheless, since the market for delivery apps is not solely consists of consumers, the E-commerce Consumer Protection Act, which considers an overall balance between delivery app providers, participating catering businesses, and consumers, can be viewed in positive regards. But obvious limitations of the act in application on the delivery apps, which are exemption from duty of information disclosure, lack of detailed applications of the act on transaction types, and inability to be flexibly applied to new forms of transactions, must be acknowledged. Thus, it is necessary to construct an e-commerce consumer protection act that supplements the limitations while maintaining a balance between all participants of the market. As that is the most reasonable method to promote a healthy advancement of national economy.

        • KCI등재

          마우스 만성 췌장염 모델에서 연교(連翹)와 현호색(玄胡索) 단일 추출물 및 추출 혼합물의 보호 효과

          신준연 ( Joon Yeon Shin ),최지원 ( Ji-won Choi ),김동욱 ( Dong-uk Kim ),주자기 ( Ziqi Zhou ),권빛나 ( Bitna Kweon ),배기상 ( Gi-sang Bae ),송호준 ( Ho-joon Song ),박성주 ( Sung-joo Park ) 대한본초학회 2021 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.36 No.1

          Objectives : Forsythiae Fructus has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in many diseases, and Corydalis Tuber has been used as a pain suppressor in Eastern Asia. However, the protective effects of individual water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FF) and Corydalis Tuber (CT) and the mixture of FF and CT (FC) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) were not well-investigated. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of FF, CT, and FC on CP in mice. Methods : To induce CP, cerulein was injected 6 times a day, 4 times a week for 3 weeks. 1 h before the every cerulein injection, 200 ㎎/㎏ of FF, CT, or FC was intraperitoneally injected to mice. Histological analysis of pancreas was examined by hematoxylin and eosin stain and collagen deposition was examined by Masson’s trichrome stain. Fibrogenic parameters such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and fibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also analyzed by immunofluorescence stain and real-time PCR. Results : Histological damages in pancreas were inhibited by pre-treatment of FF or FC but not CT. α-SMA and ECM in pancreas were inhibited by pre-treatment of CT or FC but not FF. Moreover, the expression of TGF-β1 and PDGF in pancreas were inhibited by FF, CT or FC. Conclusions : Our results suggest that FC have protective effect on CP in mice through inhibition of α-SMA, ECM, TGF-β1 and PDGF in pancreas, and these findings could suggest new clinical strategy for CP.

        • KCI등재

          우리나라 입양제도의 개선방안에 관한 연구

          김상찬,신준연 제주대학교 법과정책연구원 2019 국제법무 Vol.11 No.2

          From old times, it was allowed to adopt by free will of the parties, and it has been causing various social problems such as adoptive child abuse by foster parents. Therefore, the current laws pertaining to adoption is that the nation intervenes in the adoption process with the court’s approval. However, the ultimate purpose of the modern adoption system is to realize the welfare for both parties. To do this, it should be provided the practically good adoption environment by an active intervention of the state such as investigating qualification and strengthening judgment of the adopters, substantial education for adopters, strengthening the nation’s management and supervision on adoption agencies. In Korea, international adoption has a large part historically as much as establishing “Act on Special Cases concerning Orphan Adoption” to put the orphans up for adoption in adoptive homes after Korean War. Even today, it is well known to be the country has the highest ratio of international adoption in OECD countries. Nevertheless, Korea’s international adoption has been led by private adoption organizations without any involvement of the state or government, and the private organizations are responsible for most adoption process including investigation of adopters. It is differ considerably from foreign systems which limit the roles of adoption organizations such as a introduction of adoptable children or services after adoption. Korea also introduced the consideration of full adoption in civil code reform 2012, and as in the reform the Act on Special Cases concerning Adoption, it is moving to the direction coinciding with the trend of modern adoption system of “promotion of right and welfare of adoptive children through expanding the state involvement in adoption process, providing after service for adopted children, and priority of domestic adoption principle. However, Korea has yet to ratify ‘Hague Adoption Convention’, to do this, it has tasks to modify and harmony the laws related adoption with the convention. This study examines the problems of current adoption-related laws, and, especially, discusses the improvement points on the joining and ratifying Hague Adoption Convention and the revision and enactment of adoption- related laws. 예로부터 우리나라는 당사자들의 자유로운 의사에 의한 입양이 허용되고 있었고 이로 인하여 양부모에 의한 입양아동의 학대 등 여러 가지 사회문제가 발생되었다. 그래서 현재의 입양관련법은 입양에 법원의 허가를 요건으로 하는 등 입양절차에 국가가 개입하고 있다. 그러나 현대 입양제도의 궁극적인 목적은 양자의 복리를 실현하는 것이고, 이를 위해서는 입양절차에 있어서 양부모 될 자의 자격조사 및 심사 강화, 예비 양부모에 대한 교육 등의 충실화, 입양기관에 대한 국가의 관리감독 강화 등 국가의 적극적인 개입으로 실질적으로 좋은 입양환경이 마련되어야 한다. 우리나라는 6・25 전쟁 후 고아를 외국의 양부모에게 입양시키기 위하여 ‘고아입양특례법’을 제정할 정도로 역사적으로 국제입양이 차지하는 비중이 크며, 오늘날에도 국제입양의 비율이 OECD국가 중 가장 높은 국가로 알려지고 있다. 그럼에도 불구하고 우리나라의 국제입양은 국가나 정부의 관여 없이 민간 입양기관 주도로 이루어져 왔고, 양부모 될 자에 대한 조사를 포함한 대부분의 입양절차를 민간 입양기관이 전담하고 있다. 이는 입양기관의 역할을 입양 가능한 아동에 대한 소개나 입양 후의 서비스 등에 한정하는 외국의 제도와 크게 다른 점이다. 우리나라도 2012년 민법개정으로 완전양자제도를 도입하고, 2011년 입양특레법의 개정으로 입양절차에 국가개입의 확대, 입양아동에 대한 사후 서비스 제공, 국내입양 우선추진 원칙 등을 통하여 ‘양자가 되는 아동의 권익 및 복지증진’이라는 현대 입양제도의 동향에 부합하는 방향으로 나아가고 있다. 그러나 우리나라는 아직도 ‘헤이그국제아동입양협약’을 비준하지 못하고 있는 상태이며, 이 협약을 비준하기 위해서는 우리 입양관련법들을 협약과 조화되도록 정비해야 하는 과제를 안고 있다. 본고는 현행 입양관련법상의 문제점을 검토하고 특히 헤이그국제아동입양협약의 가입・비준과 관련한 입양관련법의 개정 또는 제정에 있어서 개선해야 할 점에 대하여 논의하고 있다.

        • KCI등재

          우리나라의 스포츠 분쟁 해결에 있어 ADR의 활성화 방안

          김상찬,신준연 제주대학교 법과정책연구원 2019 法과 政策 Vol.25 No.2

          Today, the sports have been certainly settled down as a leisure area, and the market of professional sports is also continuously growing. In the free-contract market for popular sports such as baseball or soccer, there are players who receive more than ten billion for annual salary. With the development of sports market and sports industry, the disputes related to sports are also increasing. These type of disputes can be categorized as following: disputes between players, disputes between player and team(club), and disputes between team(club) and team(club). Due to the unique characteristics, the sports disputes should be quickly, privately, and economically resolved, which is the reason why the sports disputes should be resolved through ADR. In Korea, there have been continuous discussions and researches saying that the sports disputes should be resolved through ADR. Even though the Korea Sports Arbitration Committee(KSAC) was established and operated under the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee in May 2006, this committee was abolished in 2009 for the reason of poor performance. After that, the Korea Commission for Fair Play in Sport was established and operated under the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee in 2014. However, this system is not good enough to resolve sports disputes. Even though the Korean Commercial Arbitration Board launched the ‘Sports Arbitration Advisory Committee’ in September 2017, preparing for the establishment of an arbitration organization, its tentative name being ‘The Korea Sports Arbitration Center’, there has been no progress till today. Based on this situation, after examining the special characteristics of Korean sports disputes, the suitability for ADR, the types of sports disputes, and cases of dispute resolution, as the measures for the vitalization of ADR in the sports disputes of Korea, this thesis suggests the cultivation of ADR experts in each sports area, enactment of the standard contract for dispute resolution in sport area, expansion of alliance/exchange with overseas sports arbitration organizations, cooperation with domestic sports-related organizations/ institutions, and the establishment of ADR organization for the resolution of sports disputes. 오늘날 스포츠는 여가의 한 분야로서 확실히 자리 잡고 있으며, 프로 스포츠 시장도 지속적으로 성장하고 있어서 야구나 축구 등 인기 종목의 자유계약시장에서는 연봉 100억이 넘는 선수들이 등장하고 있다. 스포츠 시장, 스포츠 산업의 발달과 더불어 스포츠 관련 분쟁 역시 증가하고 있으며, 경기 판정에 관한 분쟁뿐만 아니라 선수와 선수간, 선수와 팀(구단)간, 팀(구단)과 팀(구단)간, 선수 혹은 구단과 협회간의 분쟁 등 그 유형도 다양해지고 있다. 스포츠 분쟁은 그 특수성으로 인하여 신속하고 비공개적이며 경제적으로 해결해야 하며, 여기에 스포츠 분쟁을 ADR을 통하여 해결해야할 필요성이 존재한다. 우리나라에서도 스포츠 분쟁을 ADR을 통하여 해결하자는 논의와 연구가 지속되어 왔고, 2006년 5월부터 한국스포츠중재위원회(KSAC)가 대한체육회 산하에 설치되어 운영되고 있었으나 이 위원회는 실적이 부진하다는 이유로 2009년 폐지되었다. 그 후 2014년부터 대한체육회 산하에 한국스포츠공정위원회가 설치・운영되고 있지만 스포츠 분쟁을 해결하는 데 충분한 시스템이라고 할 수 없고, 2017년 9월에 대한상사중재원에서 ‘스포츠중재자문위원회’를 발족하고 가칭 ‘한국스포츠중재센터’의 설립을 위한 준비에 들어갔지만 현재까지 진전이 없는 상태이다. 이러한 상황을 바탕으로 본고에서는 우선 스포츠 분쟁의 특수성과 ADR 적합성, 스포츠 분쟁의 유형과 함께 대표적인 스포츠분쟁 해결 사례를 살펴본 후, 우리나라 스포츠 분쟁해결에서 ADR의 활성화 방안을 다음과 같이 제시하고 있다. 첫째, 스포츠 분야별 ADR 전문가를 양성해야 한다. 둘째, 스포츠 분야 분쟁 해결 표준계약서의 제정하여 사용하도록 장려하고 여기에 표준중재조항을 넣어야 한다. 셋째, CAS, AAA, JSAA 등 해외 스포츠중재기관들과 제휴하고 교류를 확대해야 한다. 넷째, 구단, 협회, 대한체육회, 문화체육관광부 등 국내 스포츠 관련 단체 및 기관들 간의 협력, 그리고 스포츠 관현 학회의 지속적인 연구와 협력이 필요하다. 다섯째, 스포츠 분쟁 해결을 위한 ADR기구의 설립 등을 제시하고 있다.

        • KCI등재

          몰약(沒藥) 물 추출물의 급성 췌장염 보호 효과

          김동구 ( Dong Goo Kim ),배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),신준연 ( Joon Yeon Shin ),이성곤 ( Sung Kon Lee ),김명진 ( Myoung Jin Kim ),김민준 ( Min Jun Kim ),추갑철 ( Gab Chul Choo ),송호준 ( Ho Jo 대한본초학회 2014 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.29 No.6

          Objectives : Commiphora myrrha (CM) has been used in traditional medicine for treating disease such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, diabetes and osteoarthritis. However, the protective effects of CM on acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of CM water extract on cerulein-induced AP. Methods : AP was induced in mice via intraperitoneal injection of supramaximal concentrations of the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein (50 μg/kg) every hour for 6 times. Water extract of CM (0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 g/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. The mice were killed at 6 h after the final cerulein injection. Pancreas was rapidly removed for morphologic and histochemical examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Blood samples were taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activities. Results : Administration of CM significantly inhibited pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, pancreas histological injury. And CM administration inhibited the serum digestive enzyme elevation such as amylase and lipase on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. In addition, Pancreas MPO activity which indicates neutrophil infiltration was inhibited by CM extract on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Conclusions : In conclusion, our results could suggest that pre-treatment of CM reduces the severity of cerulein-induced AP. Therefore, CM could be used as a protective agent against AP. Also, this study could give a clinical basis that CM could be a drug or agent to prevent AP.

        • KCI등재

          금은화 물추출물의 항산화 효과와 Ultraviolet(UV)B로 유도된 사람 각질형성세포 손상에 대한 보호효과

          서승희 ( Seung Hee Seo ),배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),김동구 ( Dong Goo Kim ),신준연 ( Joon Yeon Shin ),송호준 ( Ho Joon Song ),박성주 ( Sung Joo Park ),최미옥 ( Mee Ok Choi ) 대한본초학회 2014 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.29 No.6

          Objectives : Lonicerae japonicae Flos(LJF) has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-rheumatoid properties. However, it is still largely unknown whether LJF inhibits the ultraviolet(UV)B-induced oxidative damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Therefore in this paper, we investigated the anti-oxidative capacity and protective effect of LJF against UVB-induced oxidative demage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Methods : To evaluate the anti-oxidative activity of LJF extracts, we measured total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity, and superoxide scavenging activity. To give an oxidative stress to HaCaT cells, UVB was irradiated with 200 mJ/㎠ to HaCaT cells. To detect the protective effect of LJF against UVB, we measured cell viability, DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to find a major component of LJF. Results : LJF contained phenolic and flavonoid contents, and showed the anti-oxidant and superoxide scavenging activity. The UVB-induced oxidative conditions led to the cell death, DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, pretreatment with LJF reduced oxidative conditions, including inhibition of cell death, DNA fragmentation and ROS production. In addition, we found out chlorogenic acid as major component of LJF. Conclusions : These results could suggest that LJF contained anti-oxidative contents and exhibited protective effects against UVB on human HaCaT keratinocytes. And the effective compound of LJF which could show protective activities against UVB is chlorogenic acid. Thus, LJF and chlorogenic acid would be useful for the development of drug or cosmetics treating skin troubles.

        • KCI등재

          마치현(馬齒□)의 급성 췌장염 보호 효과

          곽태신 ( Tae Sin Gwak ),김동구 ( Dong Goo Kim ),김주영 ( Ju Young Kim ),배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),신준연 ( Joon Yeon Shin ),이성곤 ( Sung Kon Lee ),김명진 ( Myoung Jin Kim ),김민준 ( Min J 대한본초학회 2014 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.29 No.3

          Objective : Portulaca oleracea (PO) has been used as an important traditional medicine for inflammatory and bacterial diseases in East Asia. However, the protective effects of PO on acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well-known. Therefore, this study was performed to identify the anti-inflammatory and prophylactic effects of PO on cerulein-induced AP. Methods : AP was induced in mice via intraperitoneal injection of supramaximal concentrations of the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein (50 ㎍/㎏) given every hour for 6 times. Water extracts of PO (100, 300, or 500 ㎎/㎏) was administrated intra-peritoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. The mice were killed at 6 h after the final cerulein injection. Pancreas and lung were rapidly removed for morphologic and histochemical examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Blood samples were taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activities. Results : Administration of PO significantly inhibited pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, pancreas andlung histological injury. And MPO activity which indicates neutrophil infiltration was inhibited by PO extracts on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. In addition, PO administration inhibited digestive enzymes such as serum amylase and lipase activity on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Conclusion : Our results could suggest that pre-treatment of PO reduces the severity of cerulein-induced AP, thereby, PO could be used as a protective agent against AP. Also, this study could give a clinical basis that PO could be a drug or agent to prevent AP.

        • KCI등재

          LPS로 유도한 RAW 264.7 세포의 염증반응에서 흰민들레의 항염증 효과

          김민준 ( Min Jun Kim ),배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),김동구 ( Dong Goo Kim ),신준연 ( Joon Yeon Shin ),이성곤 ( Sung Kon Lee ),김명진 ( Myoung Jin Kim ),박성주 ( Sung Joo Park ),송호준 ( Ho Jo 대한본초학회 2014 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.29 No.6

          Objectives : Taraxacum coreanum (TC) have been used as a traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and anti-oxidant effect in Korea. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of TC water extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation is not well-known. Therefore, this study was performed to identify the anti-inflammatory effect of TC on LPS induced inflammatory. Methods : RAW 264.7 cells were treated with 500 ng/mL of LPS. Water extracts of TC (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mg/ml) was treated 1 h prior to LPS. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Levels of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with Griess reagent and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). We also examined molecular mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-B (NF-κB) activation by western blot. Results : Water Extract from TC itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. TC treatment inhibited the production of NO production, and pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β on protein and mRNA levels. In addition, TC treatment inhibited the LPS-induced activation of MAPKs such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 kinases (p38), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB. Conclusions : In summary, our result suggest that treatment of TC could reduce the LPS-induced inflammation. Thereby, TC could be used as a protective agent against inflammation. Also, this study could give a clinical basis that TC could be a drug or agent to prevent inflammation.

        • KCI등재

          LPS로 유도한 RAW 264.7 세포의 염증반응에서 자초(紫草)의 항염증 효과

          최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),박경철 ( Kyoung Chel Park ),서승희 ( Seung Hee Seo ),김동구 ( Dong Goo Kim ),신준연 ( Joon Yeon Shin ),곽태신 ( Tae Sin Gwak ),이정현 ( Jung Hyun Lee ),이금산 ( G 대한본초학회 2013 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.28 No.2

          Objective: Lithospermum Erythrorhizon (LE) has been used as an anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. However, it is unclear that LE aqueous extract could show the anti-inflammatory effects in RAW 264.7cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from LE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced inflammatory response. Methods: To measure out the cytotoxicity of LE, we performed the MTT assay. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of LE, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin, (IL)-1β and (IL)-6) on RAW 264.7 cells. We also examined molecular mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-B (NF-κB) activation by western blot. Results : Aqueous Extract from LE itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. Aqueous extract from LE inhibited LPS-induced productions of inflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-a, IL-1β and IL-6 in RAW 264.7cells. In addition, LE inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 kinases (p38), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion : LE down-regulated LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of p38, JNK and NF-κB activation. Taken together, these results could provide the evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of LE. Therefore, LE may be a novel target in the management of inflammation and help to support a potential strategy for prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases.

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