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        近代以來中國戱曲在韓國的演出及影響

        오수경 ( Oh Soo Kyung ),신재광 ( Shin Jaegwang ) 한국중국학회 2017 中國學報 Vol.81 No.-

        本文在20世紀以來將近一個多世紀西化爲大方向的韓國歷史中,從文化藝術,尤其戱曲藝術部分入手探討韓中戱曲藝術的接觸、影響和交融問題。在此分四個時期進行討論;第一,20世紀初淸人演出,第二,韓國戰爭時期中國志愿軍慰問團演出,第三,南北分斷后韓中建交以前在南韓的中國戱曲演出,第四,韓中建交以后至今的中國戱曲演出。在這四個時期有過較集中的接觸,一定産生有意義的交流。第一時期,對韓國傳統演唱藝術從板蘇利轉變到唱劇有所刺激。第二時期,中國著名演員組織慰問團訪問戰爭中的北韓進行演出,除了中國支援軍以外,北韓的老百姓也有机會接觸大藝術家,一定有所感受。第三時期,韓國正尋?民族文化認同的時期,中華民國國劇團來南韓進行友好演出,韓國觀衆有机會接觸到作爲“國劇”的京劇。第四時期,由中國大陸演出團來韓演出,劇種更豊富,還接觸的更深入。第三、四時期,韓國戱劇界才開始關注中國戱曲的美學和表演體系。 約一個多世紀,中國戱曲在韓國舞台上亮相,主要兩方面引起了韓國戱劇界的關心。一方面注意到中國戱劇劇目的豊富,一方面注意到中國戱曲的舞台美學。當然在韓國舞台上,沒有唱功武功的基礎,无法照樣演出中國戱曲,只能採用話劇方式演出中國劇目。以長期接觸爲基礎,2015年終于出現一台再創作中國古典戱劇的戱:≪趙氏孤兒―復仇的種子≫,得到空前的成功。雖不是戱曲或者唱劇,但是?好地繼承了元雜劇≪趙氏孤兒≫而更加深內涵的現代東方戱劇。從這一部戱卓越的成就,中國古典戱劇在韓國重新得到關注。 Korea and China has a long history of exchanging culture. From ancient times, There were intimate communications of music, dance and plays till now. But after the Chinese drama become mature, because the differences of language and music between two countries become too big to interchange and be enjoyed, so the real meaningful exchange of drama between two countries rebegan after 20<sup>th</sup> century. At the beginning of 20<sup>th</sup> century, the Pan-sori(Korean storytelling performance genre of monodrama) singers tried to create a new theatrical performing form from Pansori. But scholars only estimated the influence of Japanese modern theatre which learn much from western civiization and neglected the influences of Chinese drama. Because the singers;Kim Changhuan, Kang Yonghuan, Yi Dongbaik, often visit Chinese theatre and watch the Peiking opera: the three kingdoms which is also one of the five representative repertoires of PanSori. They must be deeply impressed by the way how the Chinese actors in roles perform and began performing in roles. During the Korean war, Chinese actors organized the performing troup to entertain the soldiers three times. At the third time, many famous actors such as Mei Lanfang, Zhou Xinfang came and they not only perform for Chinese soldiers but also for North Korean soldiers and peoples. It was a rare chance for North Korean to meet the great actors and to learn what the actor means in Chinese theatre. After the war, Korea and the Republic of China has good relationship and often exchange the cultural performances. Though R.O.C. had retreated to Taiwan, they tried to succeed the Chinese culture for their identity. They called Peiking Opera as “National Opera”. It became a good model for Korean to establish the Korean national culture. After Korea and P.R.C. established the relationship in 1992, we had chances to watch more diverse performances of Chinese Theatre including many kinds of local theatres. We got some knowledge of diverse culture of China and also got to know more about the aesthetics of Chinese theatre. After more than 20 years experience, in 2015 The National Theatre of Korea staged the Chinese classic The orphan of Zhao Family, and got a great success. It means we can interpret and perform Chinese classic very meaningfully and creatively on our stage not only for contemporary Korean audience but world audience including Chinese people.

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