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        • KCI등재

          소설의 영화화에 따른 서사성 변환 연구 : 「벌레 이야기」와 「밀양」을 중심으로

          신익호(Shin Ik ho) 한국언어문학회 2015 한국언어문학 Vol.93 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          In Bug Story and Secret Sunshine, the main character Shin-ae's anguish and religious conflict are described in more detail than the incident which causes her child's miserable sacrifice. Seemingly, Shin-ae tries hard to overcome her despair with christian faith, but she strives to cope with her tragedy within the limitations of human ability. She is not sure of salvation through the christian faith. Conversely, she is obsessed with the idea that she can get over difficulties with her efforts and will, that is to say, through self-deification. She loses her lovely son, but does not give up on her life. Rather, she can support herself, having strong will and hope. Eventually, these efforts lead to the fictional religion. Others who have never experienced her religious conflict, have no right to criticize that she has developed a blessing-oriented faith. Shin-ae's failure of salvation is a result of the religious dogma. Also, it expresses that she is locked in struggle with her will and fictional faith due to the limitation of human ability rather than she apologizes people around her with agape. She has never experienced both self denial as a sinner and a sense of gratitude and repentance which are the essence of christian faith. For this reason, she is not a born again christian, but just a bug. This story not only educates the reader that false religious faith is serious, but also shows univeral sympathy that religious salvation can not solve easily the problems of the human condition. The original novel, Bug Story, and the movie, Secret Sunshine, have differences in characters, surrounding environment, method of narration, structure derived from different genres, thematic consciousness and ending plot, even though they have common factors such as the existential situation and theodicean problems. The first part of the movie describes how the main character's child is kidnapped and killed in the process of settlement in a remote town. This event is portrayed as the climax of agony and anxiety. In the latter half of the film, the mother of the child writhes in desperate agony and faces the existential situation with religious conflict. At the end, a postive life is implied with secret and hopeful light. The main character, Shin-ae, plays the part of a long-suffering wife who acts out a series of deviant behaviors such as a suicide attempt, wrath and cursing in protest toward God after the failure of forgiveness. She is the most round character by means of motion picture techniques. Though she had a good relationship with others and received God's word once, she becomes a person who does not communicate well with others. When she does not find solutions and just feels despair, facing agony and protesting God, believers urge her to recognize the Providence of God and God's will. In this respect, the theodiciean interpretation justifying agony explains that hardship and adversity resulting from sin can be resolved through atonement. However, art questions and defies the Providence of God and deals intensively with the existential situation that superficial religion can not save people in agony.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          오장환 시에 나타난 기독교 의식

          신익호(Shin Ik-ho) 한국비평문학회 2008 批評文學 Vol.- No.28

          This article aims at exploring the christian aspects in Oh Jang-Hwan's poetry. First, the narrative motive of the parable of the Prodigal Son shows the recognition of rebirth and unconditional and limited love from a father. The love of the father who never discriminates two sons, means that Jesus's death is based on the infinite love toward all mankind. In "Again, Midangri" of which the motive is also the parable of Prodigal Son, the poet forms the universal emotion and feeling with widely known writing materials and focuses on the unlimited love of a mother. Avoiding the desperate reality by calling imaginary mother away from home, he finds his real mother and reveals the reminiscence. Second, the ritual of a scapegoat throughout Jesus' cross, instead of offering the blood of an animal, means that the relationship between God and men was recovered. Men could be saved because Jesus accepted all of sufferings for men who must have died from the original sin. This ritual can be found in "Christmas" and "Song of Homecoming". The former implies the pity for the weak and the innocence of the eternal life. Mother deer's sacrifice is similar to that of a scapegoat and she suffers from the sin which doesn't belong to her but others. Third, the original sin resulted from the greed that men could be equal to creator by eating the apple from tree of knowledge of good and evil. It is not related to men's own will and is inherited by destiny. It appears in "The Ominous song", "The Last Train" and "Hallelujah". As the mixture of strange and unusual images in "The Ominous song" causes alienation and embarrassment, the tragic attitude about the original sin is found. "The Last Train" expresses the present view on the world and self inner world and reflects the depth of recognition and despair about present conditions through the sorrowful cries and scream about tragic fate.

        • KCI등재

          논문 : 「목불」(木佛)에 나타난 유희적 “말놀이”와 반야사상

          신익호 ( Ik Ho Shin ) 한국문학과종교학회 2011 문학과종교 Vol.16 No.1

          A Wooden Buddhist Image is about the process of realizing the mercy of Buddha by finding a wooden Buddhist image. It has the main accident which happens after a monk named Tangong who practices asceticism, meets an old Buddha sculpture called Dalnoin. Tangong`s purpose of life is to find a wooden buddhist image and the meaning of his purpose is revealed indirectly through Dalnoin`s life. In this paper, three things can be summarized briefly as follows. First, A Wooden Buddhist Image has a circular structure of tense repetition and its content has cause and effect. It also has a journey structure towards enlightenment which a main character attains throughout his wondering and suffering without the clear reversal and conflict. Second, the word play of concealing and revealing can be found in a main character`s name, place name, Buddhist sermon and a note written in blood. Third, both the truth that matter is void and the emptiness idea which are based on Buddha`s reflection on wheel of life, are showed by means of enlightenment through Dalnoin`s nirvana and Tangong`s endless obsession and anguish. In other words, Tango must escape from the obsession about a hopeless reality of his existence. Then, he must find and make his own Buddhist image in his mind for himself. But, A Wooden Buddhist Image doesn`t explain the reasons why Tangong becomes a monk and why he is so obsessive about a wooden Buddhist image. Also, he seems to lack truth-seeker`s intenseness because he can attain easily the enlightenment not by his own efforts but by Dalnoin`s.

        • KCI등재

          시와 영화의 상호관련성 연구

          신익호(Shin Ik-ho) 한국비평문학회 2016 批評文學 Vol.- No.60

          본 고에서는 ‘4·3’이라는 동일 모티브로 창작된 시와 영화를 비교 분석함으로써 상이한 예술 장르간의 수용 가능성을 좀더 확장해보고자 하는 데에 초점을 두었다. 첫째, 『지만 울단 장쿨레기』에 수록된 시와 영화 『지슬』은 4단계 구성과 토속적인 제주방언을 공통적으로 사용하였다. 이 시조집 1부에 실린 20여 편의 내용은 불타버린 마을의 참상과 잊혀지지 않는 아픔을, 영화에서는 위령제 형식의 시퀀스로 구성되어 각 시퀀스가 바뀔 때마다 글자가 쓰인 흰종이에 불을 태우는 제사의식을 취해 죽은 영혼을 위로한다. 이 시조집과 영화는 시어와 대사 모두 제주방언을 사용함으로써 제주인이 겪은 4·3이라는 역사적 아픔을 생생하게 표현하고, 더 나아가서는 그 당시의 정치적 상황을 신랄하게 고발함으로써 제주인의 정체성 회복과 치유 기능에 일말의 기여를 했다고 볼 수 있다. 둘째, 두 장르에서 시적 함축성과 쇼트간 충돌의 몽타주 기법의 공통적인 속성을 엿볼 수 있다. 몽타주의 이질적 쇼트간의 병치와 충돌로 나타나는 선명한 이미지들은 이야기를 비약시키면서 한 주제에 대한 복합적인 관점을 동시에 표출하는데 기여한다. 이런 몽타주 기법은 시의 함축성과 병치은유의 기법과 상통한다. 병치은유는 유사한 이미지의 전이에 따른 상호모방적 인자 없이 이질적인 사물의 병치와 조합을 통해 새로운 의미를 창조하거나 확장한다. 셋째, 두 장르간 동일 모티브를 다양한 이미지로 구체화시키는 과정에서 제유나 환유 같은 수사법을 반복해 사용하였다. 시의 언술적 차원은 단순히 시어에서 뿐만 아니라 어구·행·연을 아우르면서 전체적인 맥락 속에서 다양한 수사적 기교를 통해 메시지를 담고 있다. 영화도 구체적인 장면이나 사물, 인물로 전체의 맥락을 이야기하므로 제유적·환유적 성격을 갖고 있다면, 클로즈-업은 가장 쉽게 발견할 수 있는 제유적 표현 기법이다. 그것은 일련의 부분적인 묘사를 통해 전체적인 이미지를 불러일으키기 때문이다. 넷째, 상하의 대립적 관계를 통한 권력 횡포를 엿볼 수 있다. 시조집에서는 토벌대와 산 속 무장대 간의 이념적 대립으로 억울하게 희생된 양민들의 참상이, 영화에서는 군대 내에서 상관들의 비인간적인 명령과 행동이 얼마나 포악하고 잔인한가를 상하 관계의 대립되는 쇼트의 병렬을 통해 반복적으로 나타낸다. This research aims to show the similarity between two different genres by comparing and analyzing poetry and film which are based on the Jeju Uprising. First, both the poems in Giman Uldan Jangchlraegi and the film, Jiseul consist of 4 sections and are expressed in Jeju dialect. The first section of poems is about the terrible scene of a burned village and horrible pain. The film is composed of a sequence of memorial services. Whenever the sequence progresses, white paper with some letters is burned to console the deceased. Both the poetry and the film distinctly describe the historical pain of which Jeju citizens suffered as Jeju dialect is used in both. Also, they report the political situation of that time pungently and contribute to healing and restoring the identity of Jeju citizens. Second, some clear images are made by the juxtaposition and collision of disparate shots and they expand the story as well as express multiple points of view about the subject. The montage technique and the diaphor technique have many things in common in terms of poetic implication. The latter creates and expands new meanings through the combination and juxtaposition of different things without copy which is caused by the transition of similar images. Third, the metonymy and synecdoche are repeatedly used in the process of putting various images of the same motives of two genres into shape. The poetry describes the messages both with poetic words and with many rhetorical devices in the context of lines and stanzas. The film also uses synecdoche and metonymy in telling the whole context with some specific scenes, men and objects. Close-up is easily used as a technique of synecdoche. It brings out the whole image through a series of partial descriptions. Fourth, there is the tyranny of power caused by the relationship between subordinates and superiors. The poetry depicts the ideological confrontation between a punitive expedition and an armed group as well as the slaughter of innocent people on a false charge. The film shows the cruelty and violence of the military seniors’ inhumane orders and behavior through repetitive shots of conflictual relationship of subordinates and superiors.

        • KCI등재

          정희성 시의 패러디 형태구조 연구

          신익호(Shin Ik-ho) 韓國批評文學會 2010 批評文學 Vol.- No.36

          The purpose of this study is to show the morphological structure of parody in Jeong Hui-seong’s poems. It can be summarized as follows. First, one way of the morphological structure of parody is an externalization as the device of foregrounding of original works. This means that Jeong Hui-seong borrows the structures and poetic minds of famous poems in order to make readers recognize them easily through their appearance. He parodies Park Mok-wol’s “Mountain Surrounding Me” into “Mountain Asking to Me” “Mountain Asking to Me” describes the sense of realism and fierce life of common people who suffer from the poverty and starvation, while Park Mok-wol’s “Mountain Surrounding Me” depicts the union of nature. Second, as a device of foregrounding of original works, an internalization means to borrow ,partially, the phrases of famous poems to emphasize a poetic theme. Or it can be used directly in terms of a poetic mind by calling attention to the poetic concept and the comprehensive image. It is easy to find borrowed partial phrases and images in Jeong Hui-seong’s Poems. For “Stone”, he borrows the criticism of values of disguised reality adapted from Seo Jeong-ju’s “Looking at Moodeung” and the positive value of life through the images of revolution and liberty from Kim Soo-young’s “Blue Sky”. And for “Entering Maeheon’s old house”, he borrows the awareness of cold reality and the consciousness of the future-oriented sense of pioneers from Yi Yuk-sa’s “Wild Field”.

        • KCI등재

          특집 문학과 언어 : 김수영 시의 한시적(漢詩的) 구조의 병렬 반복 연구

          신익호 ( Ik Ho Shin ) 현대문학이론학회 2010 現代文學理論硏究 Vol.0 No.42

          김수영 시에서 반복과 열거는 초기시에서 후기시에 이르기까지 폭넓게 나타난다. 그의 시에서 반복은 동일한 낱말, 형태소, 시행, 구절, 문장 등으로 다양하게 나타나 환유라는 의미 전달 체계로 전이되어 시적 구성 원리로 작용한다. 본고는 김수영 시의 다양한 반복 형태 중 주로 구절과 문장 반복이 기승전결 형태의 시 각 연에 나타나는 작품을 대상으로 어떻게 가변적, 축약적, 대칭적 병렬 반복의 변주 과정이 나타나는지 구조적 관점에서 살펴보았다. 첫째, 한시 구조의 병렬 반복은 전통적 한시 작법인 기승전결 형태의 선경후정(先景後情)의 묘사법에 따라 「자장가」, 「파자마바람」에서 엿볼 수 있다. 둘째, 변주된 한시 구조의 형태로 가변적 병렬 반복과 축약된 병렬 반복으로 나눌 수 있는데, 가변적 병렬 반복은 도식적인 정형의 틀을 벗어나 다양한 변주에 따른 입체성을 나타낸 형태로 「사령」, 「폭포」에서 엿볼 수 있고, 축약된 병렬 반복은 한시 구조의 후반부를 하나의 연으로 축약한 형태로 「파밭가에서」, 「광야」에서 엿볼 수 있다. 셋째, 대칭적 병렬 반복은 전반부와 후반부로 나누어 전후대칭을 이루는 형태로 「눈」, 「여름뜰」에서 엿볼 수 있다. The aim of this study is to analyze the form of the parallel repetition of Chinese poetic structure in Kim Soo-young`s poetry. First, the form of parallel repetition of Chinese poetic structure is divided into two parts, the beginning and the end. It consists of 4 stanzas for introduction, development, turn and conclusion, which are regarded as the structure of the traditional Chinese poem. According to the way of description of Chinese poetry, Kim Soo-young mentions a certain situation in the beginning and expresses, concretely, the subjective emotion which is suitable for the situation in the end. "Lullaby" and "In One`s Pajamas" are good examples for this description. In "Lullaby", he depicts a baby`s cute look and the subjective emotion of the narrator who is looking at the baby. In the poem, "In One`s Pajamas", he satirizes the weakness and pretension of a lower-middle class citizen with the fragmentary talk of everyday affairs. Second, the form of the changed Chinese poetic structure can be divided into the flexible parallel repetition and the contracted parallel repetition. (1) The form of the flexible parallel repetition is made up of 5 stanzas, but it is summarized in 4 stanzas through consideration for the repetition of syntactic structure which appears superficially. Deviating from the schematic pattern, he shows many different variations. There are "Dead Soul", "From a Distance" and "Waterfall" as examples of this form. He expresses the strong will toward freedom through a connection between the beginning and the end in "Dead Soul", the mental frustration through the cognition of pain in "From a Distance", and strong belief and integrity through the vertical visualization of propriety in "Waterfall". (2) The form of the contracted parallel repetition indicates that a poem has 3 stanzas by contracting two stanzas of turn and a conclusion into 1 stanza. "In an Onion Patch" and "Wilderness" are good examples of this form. Kim Soo-young illustrates the phenomenological cognition of change and the phenomenon of love through the gradation and the structure of paradoxical proposition in "In an Onion Patch". He faces reality through the structure of inner conversation and the visual rhythm in "Wilderness". Third, the form of symmetrical parallel repetition indicates both the symmetry of the beginning and end as well as the relationship formation through combination and response as the fusion structure of mutual conflict and collision. "Snow" and "Summer Garden" are good illustrations of this form. "Snow" portrays the conscious recognition of the intellectual in action who rejects the daily repetition of a lower-middle class citizen through the metonymic structure of contiguity. As a variation of conflict structure, "Summer Garden" demonstrates the scornful and negative attitude of self-recognition under the pain of inner conflict and with reproach upon indecision.

        • KCI등재

          〈허생전〉다시 읽기

          신익호(Ik-ho Shin) 어문연구학회 2006 어문연구 Vol.52 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

            The idea of Silhak inspired the practicality of learning with the technique of modern science at the time of dissatisfaction and critical awareness with regards to the incompetent ruling class. It was especially Yeonam who accepted Ch"ing culture in order to develop the commerce and industry. He insisted on the invention of equipment and product distribution in orde to eradicate the poverty caused by the contempt of commerce and industry. He also criticized the corrupt, extravagant and Neo-confucian authority of the ruling class. "Heoseongjeon" by Yeonam is about mercantilism , Sunbi(classical scholar) spirit of self reflection and hypocrite. He severly criticized the old confucian tradition, evil customs and the hypocritical confucianists who indulged in academic discussion.<BR>  "Heoseong"s Wife" explains the motives of creative writing. The observer"s point of view backgrounds the story of Heoseong"s original text and foregrounds the new world. It is about the journal of Heoseong"s wife and also the story of Heoseong from her point of view. The female life which is isolated and unimportant appears with her voice. In the later half of the book, it is used as the function to criticize the sacrifice of the female life. She establishes her subjectivity throughout her own self discovery of self worth. She deviates from the passive world in which she lives as the other. To pursue the fact that the female is not an alienated object but the person at the center of life. It is portrayed that the female feature and experience must be considered as the valuable entity.<BR>  "The Time Heoseong Is Taught" seriously shows the reality of the real life through the discussion of education from the point of view of reception-aesthetics. It breaks the traditional custom with defamilarization, awakens the consciousness and opens the closed minded, through which the text can be read in a new and different way. The characters appear as the reader empathizes with the characters in the book. The reader also recognizes the many ways the text can be read.

        • KCI등재

          민중의식적 신앙관과 "욕망"의 구조 통한 신앙적 갈등 양상 -『만다라』와 『사람의 아들』을 중심으로

          신익호 ( Ik Ho Shin ) 현대문학이론학회 2011 現代文學理論硏究 Vol.0 No.46

          김성동의 『만다라』와 이문열의 『사람의 아들』은 공히 두 작가의 출세작으로 발표 시기와 개작 과정이 비슷할 뿐만 아니라 불교와 기독교의 진리를 예술적으로 잘 형상화시킨 종교문학으로서 성공을 거두었다고 할 수 있다. 『만다라』는 고통과 절망과 허무 속에서 성불의 경지를 이루기 위해 치열한 삶을 통해 구도자의 길을 보여주고, 『사람의 아들』은 액자소설의 구조 속에서 탐정 추리 형식으로 한 신학도의 회의와 방황을 통해 크리스천의 삶에 내재하고 있는 다양한 신앙 양태를 보여주고 있다. 동일한 시각에서 접근한 두 작품은 공히 작품명의 상징적 모티프를 배경으로 입체적인 구조와 다양한 행동단위 중심으로 스토리가 전개되고 있다. 그리고 ``이분화된 자아``로서 『만다라』가 서술자인 법운을 통해 의식적인 인격과 가치관과 신앙관을, 지산을 통해 내면적·무의식적인 심층세계를 투영시킨다면, 『사람의 아들』은 액자틀인 민요섭과 그 속그림인 아하스 페르츠를 통해 한 인간의 내외면을 입체적으로 나타낸다. 민중불교와 민중신학 중심의 민중의식적 신앙관은 현실에 안주하는 전통적·보수적 종교관을 비판하며 불합리한 사회 구조 속에서 고통받고 신음하는 민중구원을 위해 사회참여적인 입장을 취한다. 구도 과정과 신앙적 갈등 양상은 ``삼각형적 욕망``의 구조를 통해 나타나는데, 욕망주체로서 두 작품의 주인공인 법운과 민요섭은 각각 지산과 지암스님, 아하스 페르츠라는 중개자를 통해 욕망대상인 신앙적 갈등과 회의, 극복 양상을 나타내고 있다. This study is to summarize the results as follows. First, both Mandala and The Son of Man have the three dimensional structure based on the symbolic motive from their titles. The stories of them are developed into the unit of various actions. Like a journey type novel, the story of Mandala unfolds through the change of the different points of views with an accidental meeting and separation. But The Son of Man which uses the frame story or a story within a story, consists of 3 steps and depicts the aspects of the religious conflict by overlapping the stories from Yoseop Min, a main character of outside story and Ahasperz, a main character of inside story. Second, in Mandala, Beopbun, the first person narrator and Gisan, his training partner are two equal parts divided from Beopbun who is superficially described. The Son of Man shows the inside and outside of a man by mixing two stories through the frame story. One is Yoseop Min`s story which is developed as a main story. The other is the story of Ahas Pertz`s life as a sub story. Third, the viewpoint of the faith which is aimed at the public on the basis of Buddhism and theology for the public, criticizes the existing religions, because they become idealogical, pursue the ideology of rule and settle for the present. This faith takes resolute attitude toward the participation in saving those who suffer and are isolated from the unreasonable structure of the society. Fourth, the truth-seeking processes and the religious conflict of the main character can be understood by the hidden mechanism of the conflict and the desire by means of the structure of ``triangular desire``. Beopbun as the subject of the desire and Yoseop Min have Gisan and Ahasperz respectively as intermediaries through whom they show the aspects of the religious conflict, agony and resolution.

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          현대시에 나타난 ‘대전 공간’의 형상 연구

          신익호(Shin, Ik-ho) 한국비평문학회 2014 批評文學 Vol.- No.54

          문학지리학은 작품 속에 나타나는 ‘장소’에 인간적 경험의 다양한 특성을 미적 상상력으로 승화시켜 의미화하는 작업이다. 현대시에 다양한 ‘대전 공간’을 소재화한 작품이 많지만 그 빈도수에 따라 ‘대전역’, ‘목척교’, ‘산’(계족산·보문산·식장산·구봉산), ‘하천’(대전천·갑천·유등천) 등이 주조를 이룬다. 본고에서는 대전의 지리적 구체성이 드러나는 빈도수 높은 장소를 중심으로 현대시에 어떻게 수용되어 의미망을 형성하는지 문학지리학적 관점에서 접근해 보고자 한다. 그럼으로써 장소 체험의 주체로서 시인이 보여 주는 가치관과 태도를 통해 대전의 정체성과 특수성을 정립할 기회가 될 것이다. 교통 중심지인 ‘대전역’을 소재화한 작품 중 절대다수가 떠남과 만남, 지난날의 회상, 귀향과 포근한 정 등의 내용을 담고 있는데, 그 중에서도 거의 만남의 기쁨보다는 이별에 따른 쓸쓸함과 그리움의 애상적 분위기가 주조를 이룬다. 신시가지가 개발되기 전까지 도심의 중심지였던 목척교는 만남의 장소로서 많은 추억과 그리움이 어려있다. 목척교를 소재화한 작품 중 절대다수가 지난날의 회상과 그리움, 목척교의 일상적 주변 풍경을 다루고 있는데, 주로 ‘으능정이’ ‘대전천변’ ‘대전역’ 등 주변 공간을 배경으로 형상화되었다. 정적인 산의 공간은 동적인 강에 비해 안정적이며 포근하게 감싸 주는 어머니의 품으로 비유된다. 계족산·보문산·식장산·구봉산 등은 대전시를 좌우사방으로 병풍처럼 둘러 감싸안고 있다. 이 산들은 역사적 배경에 따라 백제유민의 저항과 기상, 사계절의 변화 속에 정겹고 아름다운 자연 경관, 어머니 품 같은 안식처, 삶의 위로와 희망 등의 내용을 담고 있다. 대전 시내의 중앙과 좌우 외곽 지대를 흘러가는 하천은 대전천·갑천·유등천 등이 있다. 이 하천들은 삶의 휴식과 영혼의 안식처, 원형적 심상의 생명력, 생태계 회복 등의 내용을 내포하고 있다. There are many modern poems in which the subject matter is linked to some places in Daejeon. Daejeon Station, Mokcheok Bridge, mountains (Gyejok Mt., Bomun Mt., Sikjang Mt., and Gubong Mt.) and streams (Daejeon Cheon, Gap Cheon, and Yudeung Cheon) appear more often in the order named. These places are associated with various meanings. First, the image of Daejeon Station has the properties of sadness, happiness and longing as the place of separation and union. Daejeon Station as a center of transportation is the motif for 21 poems referring to separation, union, reminiscence, homecoming and warmth. More often, this image suggests sorrowful feelings on the basis of loneliness and longing after separation, rather than the delight of union. Materials like platforms and train whistles add a variety of sensuous images to the poetic moods. Second, Mokcheok Bridge was built during the Japanese colonial period and rebuilt into the current stem-cell-like structure through restoration work to uncover the stream. Before the development of a new downtown area in Daejeon, it was the center of the city and implied a lot of reminiscence as a meeting place. Twenty-two poems focusing on Mokcheok Bridge depict past memories of yearning, the surrounding scenery, and ecological recovery. The main contents of the poems are based in the surrounding areas of Uineungjeongi Cultural Street, Daejeon Cheon and Daejeon Station. Third, some poets wrote about comfort, vitality and a resting place at Gyejok Mt., Bomun Mt., Sikjan Mt., or Gubong Mt., the main mountains surrounding Daejeon. Similar to the shape of chicken feet, Gyejok Mountain is the material for 16 poems which involve Baekje people"s resistance and vigor, fresh and seasonal sense, safe haven and hope. Forty-one Bomun Mountain poems contain material about beautiful natural landscape, a soft and warm place like a mother"s arms with a baby nestled in, a new wish through sunrise, reminiscence and longing. In only 7 poems focused on Sikjang Mountain, the poets expressed comfort from life, hope, joy, and longing for father. Gubong Mountain is found in 12 poems describing beautiful landscapes of all seasons by means of various sensuous images. Fourth, there are 3 streams, Daejeon Cheon, Gap Cheon and Yudeung Cheon, flowing through the center of Daejeon and the left and right suburbs. They are symbolic of a break from life as well as vitality generating original imagery. Daejeon Cheon, penetrating the city center, suggests the lifeline of life force and a sense of alienation from change of aspect in 4 poems. Surrounding Daejeon, Gap Cheon means life-giving water, balm to the soul and trace of life in 9 poems. Yudeung Cheon is material for 4 poems which imply breadth of mind, rest area and ecological recovery in a busy urban life.

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