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In this article, I reviewed the aspect of the General Shin Chung-hee's career and activities in the late Joseon dynasty. General Shin Chung-hee(申正熙) was born in the distinguished family. His father Shin Heun(申櫶) and great-grandfather Shin Hong-ju(申鴻周) were well knowned in the military field as well. They were famous genarals in the late Joseon dynasty. Shin Chung-hee joined as a senior officier at young age. The King Heunjong get count on him as one of the most-expected in the next generation. Unfortunately the King met an untimely death at the young age. The king after next, Gojong, opened up the way of promotion to Shin Chung-hee. As a high-ranking officer, he served in a unit of the king's bodyguards that was in the royal palace. Shin Chung-hee served in various high-ranking government posts such as a commanding officer, a deputy mayor of Seoul, and et cetera. In 1877, he was nominated as the chief of the national police agency which was called Pododaejang(捕盜大將) in Joseon dynasty. As the Pododaejang, Shin Chung-hee announced a new policy and stuck to his guns to continue the war on a state of disorder among the people. "Whoever breaks the law shall be punished." Even the servants of the predominant power holder were executed. Shin Chung-hee, the Pododaejang became the minion of the public. General Shin Chung-hee resisted against for the Japanese invasion. He refused to cooperate with the Japanese in every parts. On the other hand, as a commander in Chief of Sunmuyoung(巡撫營), general Shin Chung-hee suppressed the uprising of the Donghak Peasant Army. Right before the end of the uprising, however, General Shin Chung-hee had to resigned the commandership of Sunmuyoung because the Japanese opposited to him.
In this article, I reviewed the aspect of the General Shin Chung-hee(申正熙)'s career and activities in 1894. He was Commander in Chief of Sunmuyeong(巡撫營) suppressed the uprising of the Donghak Peasant Army. His father Shin Heun(申櫶) and great-grandfather Shin Hong-ju(申鴻周)were well known in the military field as well. They were the famous generals in the late Joseon Dynasty. As a commander in Chief of Sunmuyoung, Shin Chung-hee was placed in a difficult situation. First and most importantly, the Japanese was captured Gyeongbokgung(景福宮) by the army where the king lived and interfered in the domestic affairs of Joseon Dynasty. The second serious problem was the Donghak Peasant Army rose in arms in all parts of the country. They raised their standard before embarking on the uprising. Their ultimate goal was to expel the Japanese out of the Joseon. The high ranking government officials of the Joseon Dynasty, however, had been distrusted the Donghak Peasant Army's activity and morality. The Donghak Peasant Army extorted money and food from the local yangban(兩班)s every day since spring, 1894. Shin Chung-hee realized that the Donghak Peasant Army wanted to reconstruct the state and transform society; on the other hand, as a general of the Joseon Dynasty, he had to ended the national disorder. The staff officers of the Commander-in-Chief of the Sunmuyound was within the sphere of the Daewonkun(大院君). The Japanese hated Daewonkun. The Japanese army got under arms like a breechloading rifle which was a very powerful new weapons. The regular army of the Joseon dynasty has a role as an assistant because the officer of the Japanese army take hold the right to command. Shin Chung-hee, the commander in Chief of the Sunmuyoung, could not in the vanguard of the operation. The Sunmuyeong and the Japanese Army were not on the same wave length. Meanwhile, one of the chiefs of the Sunmuyeong, Lee Gyu-tae (李圭泰) came into conflict with officers of the Japanese Army. The Japanese army called on disband the Sunmuyeong. On December 27, the Sunmuyeong was dismissed and the General Shin Chung-hee was appointment to the Ganghwayusu(江華留守).
When the Donghak Peasant Army was uprising again in September 1894, the Japanese Army decided to slaughter them Since the Donghak Peasant Army attacked the line of the commissariat of the Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War period between 1894 and 1895. The commander of the Logistic Support Command of the Japanese General Headquarters which was stationed in Korea was in charge of the suppression of the Donghak Army. The Jungno Army(中路軍) was assigned for this suppression. Jungno Army killed the Donghak Army who were in the Chungcheong province(忠淸道) at Mun-wi(文義) Ji-myung(至明), Ok-cheon (沃川) Jeing-yak(增若), Cheong-san(靑山), Geum-san(錦山). Japanese expected to connect the line of the commissariat of the Japanese Army and the resistance movement against the Japanese Imperialism This suppression was very violent and cruel. The report of this confrontation, however, was fabricated by reducing the number of death in battle for political reasons. The Donghak Peasant Army bravely drove out the outside power even though thousands of them were sadly slaughtered. Current studies couldn't clarify the detailed reality of this suppression in 1894. Therefore, the follow-up investigation is required.
The Namjob-peasant Army(南接農民軍) which was organized by Jeon Bongjun(全琫準) were gathered at Nonsan(論山). Afterward the Bukjob-Peasant Army(北接農民軍) was organized by the order of Choi Si-Hyeong(崔時亨) were gathered at Yeongdong( 永同). The tens of thousands of people was called up for duty to their community during a few weeks from all over the country: Gyeonggi(京畿) Gangwon(江原) Chungcheong(忠淸) and Gyeongsang(慶尙) provinces. On October 23, they were moving to go into the battle field. The Daegyo(大橋) battle was the first major conflict in Gongju. The Bukjob-Peasant Army was a counterparty at the Daegyo(大橋) battle. This is revealed for the first time by this article. After that, the Bukjob-Peasant Army and the Namjob-Peasant Army gathered at Nonsan. The Donghak Peasant Army, the Namjob and Bukjob-peasant Army(南北接聯合農民軍) attacked the Gongju castle. Ein(利仁) and Bongwhangsan(鳳凰山) were districts of the Bukjob-Peasant Army. These battles were ended with the defeats of the the Donghak Peasant Army. The winners were the Japanese army and the royal forces of Joseon dynasty. The remaining Bukjob-Peasant Army rallied in Nonsan. Then Japanese trops arrived unexpectedly in Yonsan(連山) that is contiguous. The Bukjob-Peasant Army assumed the Japanese aggressively start a fight on the heights. The Japanese army, however, counterattacked with a new-type weapon. Again the Donghak Peasant Army was defeated. And the toll of dead and injured was high. Until November 26, the battles of Nonsan, Wonpyong(院坪), Taein(泰仁) were continued. The Donghak Peasant Army was vanquished at the battles of Jeolla(全題) province in 1894 November. This was the results of the gap of armaments and the lack of discipline. Nevertheless, the Bukjob-Peasant Army had been fought in the following fierce battles bravely.
Many peasants who acted in Boeun in 1894 joined the Donghak Peasant army and the number reached ‘several thousands' But the study on them are still poor. The most largest reason is the lack of materials. Since Donghak Peasant revolution was suppressed, the peasants and their family had long been oppressed and as the result, the related many materials were destroyed or disappeared. And the testimony from the peasants and even from their descendants were prohibited. Donghak leaders in Boeun are identified in the Donghak history book and the records related to suppression written by Japanese army and official troops. Lim Gyuho and Hwang Hail in Boeun, Kang Yeongseok and Park SeongHwan in Hoiin were district great leaders. But there are no detailed records and only brief facts are known about them. Kim Gaejo together with Kwon Byeongduk draws our attention but materials showing his activities are deficient. The participants of Donghak peasant army are partly known through war diary of suppression army. They are not known at all. If participant's name and his village name are known, various facts can be identified through site survey. Contacting their descendants, the participants and their family can be identified through genealogy and the anecdotes related to the participants and their family can be heard about. If the family background of the participants are surveyed, it can be identified whether they were Yangban or not. By presuming the property scale given from predecessors, it can be identified whether they were rich peasants or poor peasants. The activities in the Donghak can be known. Through the materials, we can reconstruct the social aspect of the Boeun in 1894.
During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 as the fighting between the Chinese and the Japanese military on the Choson territory and Lushun(旅順) of China got fierce the Donghak Peasant Army(東學農民軍) was mass slaughtered for the attack on the Japanese rear base in Chosen. The Japanese General Military Headquarter instructed the mass slaughter of the Donghak Peasant Army as it was the biggest obstacle for the Japanese invasion of the kingdom of Choson. The Japanese commander in chief ordered his men to shoot to kill the Donghak Peasant Army and try to put the blame to the Choson official troops as the number of death toll was exceptionally high. The final death toll was purposefully reduced by the Japanese Army for the popular unrest. Tens of thousands were massacred in the Chungcheong(忠淸) Jeolla(全羅) Gyeongsang(慶尙) Gyeonggi(京畿) Gangwon(江原) and Whanghae-Do(黃海道) provinces and thousands of prisoners were executed. The worst-affected area was the south Jeolla province. Even a conservative estimate suggest over 50 thousands of the Donghak Peasant Army were killed. In comparison 10 Japanese soldiers were officially killed during entire the Donghak Peasant Revolution(東學農民革命).
It was told that the actual condition of housing of the Joseon Dynasty was very poor. But no one knew the specific data. In that time, the government data about housing issue was not made publicly. In the Daehan Imperial Period, the government officials carried out a vast plan to land survey all over the country. As a result 'Gwangmu yangan - the land survey records', a new tax book was made. One of the items was the house document. Statistics analysis gives us all of the private houses and public buildings in chungju, one of the administrative district of Chungcheongbuk-do. In those days, all the Korean lives in tiled-roof or thatched-roof houses. Some of the upper classes lived in tiled-roof house and the others lived in thatched-roof house. The volume of tiled-roof house was very few. 120 units was all, in chungju. A palatial houses were fewer than that. On Contrary thatched-roof houses were reaching 23,922 units. Many interesting facts stand out. It was as follows. one-room thatched houses : 107 units, 0.4% two-room thatched houses : 6,230 units, 26.0% three-room thatched houses : 11,035 units, 46.1% four-room thatched houses : 2,774 units, 11.6% five-room thatched houses : 1,931 units, 8.1% six-room thatched houses : 710 units, 3.0% The majority of the people(91.8%) was lived in two or five-room thatched houses. It showed us the poor condition of housing of the Joseon Dynasty in figures.